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Current Affairs MCQs for Practice – 02 May 2022

 

Question-1

Under the provisions of which Act has the Enforcement Directorate seized smartphone maker Xiaomi Technology India’s ₹5,551.27 crores?

a)   Prevention of Money Laundering Act

b)   Foreign Exchange Management Act

c)   Payment and Settlement Systems (Amendment) Act

d)   Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act

Ans- c

Explanation-

The Enforcement Directorate (ED) has seized ₹5,551.27 crore of Xiaomi Technology India Private Ltd. under the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, in connection with alleged illegal remittances made by the company.

Question-2

 

The National Medical Commission (NMC) has advised Indian students not to enrol themselves in medical colleges in which country, failing which they will not be eligible to find a job or pursue higher education in India?

a)   Germany

b)   Ukraine

c)   Pakistan

d)   China

Ans- c

 

Explanation-

The National Medical Commission (NMC) has advised Indian students not to enrol themselves in medical colleges in Pakistan.

 

Question-3

India has been facing a long series of heat waves that began at the end of March. As per the India Meteorological Department (IMD), April was the hottest in northwest India in how many years?

a)   100 years

b)   75 years

c)   120 years

d)   122 years

Ans- d

 

Explanation-

 

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) said April was the hottest in northwest India in 122 years. It has also been an unusually hot April — with temperatures touching above 40°C — in large parts of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. 

 

Question-4

Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the son of late Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, has become the youngest Foreign Minister of Pakistan. Which political party does he represent?

a)   Pakistan People's Party (PPP)

b)   Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI)

c)   Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz [PML(N)]

d)   Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)

Ans- a

 

Explanation-

Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, ​​The Pakistan People's Party (PPP) leader has become the youngest Foreign Minister of Pakistan.

Question-5

What does IBC stand for in the Indian context?

a)   Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

b)   Information and Broadcasting Code

c)   Indian Biodiversity Commission

d)   Indian Broadcasting Commission

Ans- a

 

Explanation-

 

The government and regulator IBBI have been making course corrections to address any gaps in the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

 

Question-6

Which of the following statement is/are correct with respect to the Crimeware-as-a-Service (CaaS) Model?

1.    It refers to the practice of providing cyber hacking products and services to other cybercriminals. 

2.   It is a set of computer programme that are designed to prevent illegal online activities.

3.   It allows organizations to use specialized functionality without being responsible for its maintanence and focus on core business activities.

4.   It allows even a non-hacker to attack any system without having the cyber know-how to do so.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a)   1 and 4 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)   1 and 3 only

d)   2 and 4 only

Ans- a

 

Explanation-

 

Crimeware-as-a-service (CaaS) Model

  • CaaS is any computer programme or set of programmes designed to facilitate illegal automated activities online.
  • It has become a prominent component of the underground economy.
  • CaaS provides a new dimension to cyber crime by making it more organized, automated, and accessible to criminals with limited technical skills.
  • Cybercrimes are covered under Information Technology Act (IT Act) and the Indian Penal Code.
  • Section 65 – Tampering with Computer Source Documents.
  • Penalties if found guilty can be imprisonment up to 3 years and/or up-to Rs 2 lakh fine.

 

Question-7

Consider the following statements regarding Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF):

1.    It is produced from sustainable feedstocks and is similar in its chemistry to the traditional jet fuel.

2.   Sustainable feedstocks include cooking oil, non-palm waste oils from animals or plants, and solid waste from homes.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)   2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Ans- c

Explanation-

 

Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)

  • SAF stands for sustainable aviation fuel. It’s produced from sustainable feedstocks and is very similar in its chemistry to traditional fossil jet fuel.
  • Using SAF results in a reduction in carbon emissions compared to the traditional jet fuel it replaces over the lifecycle of the fuel.
  • Some typical feedstocks used are cooking oil and other non-palm waste oils from animals or plants; solid waste from homes and businesses, such as packaging, paper, textiles, and food scraps that would otherwise go to landfill or incineration.
  • Other potential sources include forestry waste, such as waste wood, and energy crops, including fast growing plants and algae.

 

Question-8

 

Consider the following statements:

1.    The Enforcement Case Information Report (ECR) is prepared by the Enforcement Directorate and it sets out the basis on which the accused is being investigated.

2.   In the Vijay Madanlal vs Union of India case, the SC ruled that, the ED must provide the accused with the copy of the ECR.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are incorrect?

a)   1 only

b)   2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Ans-b

 

Explanation-

 

Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA)

  • At present, the Supreme Court is hearing a batch of petitions in Vijay Madanlal Choudhary & Ors Vs Union of India that are aimed at setting out the scope and applicability, as well as test the constitutional vires of provisions under PMLA.
  • It is a norm in criminal jurisprudence that investigations and proceedings that have severe implications for the accused should come with a minimum degree of transparency in line with the fundamental freedoms granted by the Constitution.
  • The standard practice of proceeding against an accused by the ED involves the creation of an internal document called Enforcement Case Information Report (ECIR).
  • The ECIR essentially sets out the basis on which the accused is being investigated.
  • In Youth Bar Association Vs Union of India, the Supreme Court mandated that an accused person was entitled to having a copy of the FIR.
  • An ECIR may appear to be a document comparable to an FIR lodged by the police personnel at a cursory reading.
  • However, there have been cases where despite registering an ECIR, a copy of the same was not provided to the accused on grounds that the ECIR is an “internal document”.
  • There have also been cases where the ED handed over a copy of the ECIR to the accused upon filing writ petitions or in proceedings under Sections 5 and 8 of the PMLA. 

Question-9

 

Consider the following statements:

1.    Accepting foreign donations is an absolute and a vested right of an individual and an organisation in India.

2.   Rights guaranteed under Part III and Article 19 of the Indian Constiution are not absolute rights.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)   2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Ans- b

 

Explanation-

 

Foreign Contributions (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020 and Reasonable Restrictions

  • In September 2020, the government enacted the Foreign Contributions (Regulation) Amendment Act, further restricting the manner in which foreign funds could be received and used.
  • It consists of a  mandatory provision that the foreign contributions must be deposited in the FCRA account created in the State Bank of India (SBI), New Delhi branch.
  • The Supreme Court in Noel Harper Vs Union of India, endorsed the Centre’s Amendment.
  • It stated that accepting foreign donations cannot be an absolute or even a vested right and held that the restrictions placed on Non- Government Organisations’ (NGOs) ability to raise and use foreign donations through the said amendments are constitutional.
  • The court observed that free and uncontrolled inflow of foreign funds has the potential to impact the socio-economic structure and polity of the country. 
  • The court stated no one can claim that receiving foreign funds was an absolute or fundamental right and it held that the restrictions in the amendments were reasonable.
  • The term “reasonable” has not been defined under the Constitution and no tests were laid down either—the role of the Supreme Court to interpret the constitution comes into play.
  • Over time, the Supreme Court has laid down, in a plethora of cases, various tests and principles with respect to the concept of ‘reasonable restrictions’.
  • In the recent Noel Harper case, the court acknowledged that it is well-established that rights guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution and Article 19 in particular, are not absolute rights.

 

Question-10

 

Consider the following statements:

1.    Cortico steroids are lab-made version of the male hormone testosterone and facilitates muscle building.

2.   Anabolic steroids are lab-made molecules that mimic the cortisol that controls the body’s stress response, metabolism, and inflammation.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)   2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Ans-d

 

Explanation-

 

Anabolic and Cortico Steroids

Anabolic

  • Anabolic steroids are essentially lab-made versions of the male hormone testosterone and have a similar effect of increasing muscle mass as the natural hormone does.
  • It also increases male characteristics in a person, such as facial hair and a deeper voice.
  • Anabolic steroids have limited medical use and are mainly used by doctors to help patients gain weight after a severe illness or injury.
  • It could also be prescribed in small doses to the elderly to build muscle mass and in some cases also helps to treat anaemia.

Cortico

  • They are ab-made molecules that mimic the action of the hormone called cortisol that controls the body’s stress response, metabolism, and inflammation.
  • They lessen swelling, redness, itching, and allergic reactions.
  • They are often used as part of the treatment for a number of different diseases, such as severe allergies or skin problems, asthma, or arthritis.

 

Source- The Hindu Newspaper /PIB/ The Indian Express

 

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