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Humayun  Mughal Emperor

(AD 1530-40& 1555-1556)

 

 

 

Particulars

 

Key Ans

1)Born at

Kabul

2)Born in

1508

3)Died in

1556

4)Died at

Delhi

5)Buried at

Delhi

6)Served as Governor

Badakshan

7)Meaning of his name

Fortunate one

8)Became the king at the age of

22

9)Known as

Problem child of the Mughal emperor

10)Related Book

“Humayun Nama” by Gulbadan Begam (sister of Humayun)

11)Was interested in

Astronomy/Geography/Mathematics/Astrology

12)Period of rule

1530-1540 (First Term)

1555-56 (Second term)

13)Ascended the Delhi throne

30 Dec,1530

14)Built his new capital at

Din Panah In Delhi in 1533

15)Family background

a)Father-Babur

b)Mother-Kamran Sultana

c)Brother-Askari/kamran/Hindal

d)Wife-Hamida Banu (married in 1541)

e)Son –Akbar /Hakim

16)Exile For

15 years (1540-55)

  • He was the second Mughal emperor of India. When Babur left the throne to his eldest, lovable son Humayun, it was not a bed of roses. When he ascended the throne, he was a young man of 23 years, but not without experience.He did not have the military ability and political knowledge as his father.

  • Humayun means “fortune” but he remained the most unfortunate ruler of the Mughal Empire.

  • Humayun had three brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal. All the three brothers of Humayun proved not only incapable but disloyal as well to their elder brother. Humayun divided the empire among his brothers but this proved to be a great blunder on his part.

  • Kamran was given Kabul and Kandahar. Sambhal and Alwar were given to Askari and Hindal respectively.

  • Various Battles were:-

Battle of Dauhariya (1532)

Humayun defeated Mahmood Lodi, who was the Afghan of Bihar.

Wars with Bahadur Shah (1535-1536)

Bahadur Shah added Malwa in 1531, and caught the fourth of Raisin and defeated the Chief of Chittor in 1533.

  • There were three major problems for Humayun:-

  1. In North west, it was his brother Kamran

  2. In east it were the Afghans

  3. In south it was Bahadur Shah the king of Gujarat and Malwa.

    (The Rajputs were also sitting at a striking distance from Agra.)

Solution to these problems:-

  • Humayun captured Gujarat from Bahadur Shah and appointed Askari as its governor But soon Bahadur Shah recovered Gujarat from Askari who fled from there.

  • In the east, Sher Khan became powerful. Humayun marched against him and in the Battle of Chausa, held in 1539, Sher Khan destroyed the Mughal army and Humayun escaped from there. (Author note- It was  his biggest mistake)

  • In 1540, in the Battle of Bilgram or Ganges also known as Battle of Kanauj, Humayun was forced to fight with Sher Khan alone and after losing his kingdom, Humayun became an exile for the next fifteen years.

 

 

  • Humayun turned into a homeless wanderer, searching for support in Marwar and Sindh.

  • On reaching Iran, Military aid was given to Humayun by Shah Ṭahmasp and then he went ahead in 1545 to overpower Kandahar and to grab Kabul from kamran, humayun’s disloyal sibling.

  • Humayun captured Lahore in 1555, by taking advantage of civil wars among the ancestors of Sher Shah. After that he recovered Delhi and Agra in the same year, after defeating Sikandar Suri, at sirhind.

  • Bairam khan his most faithful officer helped him.

01

Battle of Machhiwara(1555)Location in Punjab, India

(Machhiwara is 38 km northeast of Ludhiana city and 69 km west of the capital city of Chandigarh. It lies only 9 km from Samrala, which is on the Ludhiana Chandigarh highway.)Machhiwara name came from machhi (fish) + wara (ground). Satluj River runs 13 km away from Machhiwara.

Sikandar Shah Suri sent a force with Naseeb Khan and Tatar Khan, but they were defeated by the Mughal army in a Battle at Machhiwara.

02

Battle of Sirhind (1555)

Sikandar was defeated by the Mughal army and was compelled to retreat The victorious Mughals marched to Delhi and occupied it and reestablished their empire in India.

  • Humayun could rule only for six months and died when he slipped down the stairs of his palace.

  • In AD 1556 he fell from the stairs of library (sher mandal,Delhi) and died.

  • His body was laid to rest in Purana Quila at first, but because of attack by Hemu on Delhi and capture of Purana Qila, Humayun’s body was unearthed by the escaping armed force and moved to Kalanaur in Punjab where Akbar was coroneted. His tomb remains in Delhi, where he was later buried in a grand way.

About Hemu , The Great

Following the death of Sher Shah Suri, the Suri empire disintegrated into four parts:
1. Muhammad Khan Suri ruled over Bengal.
2. Ahmad Khan Suri ruled over Punjab with the name Sikandar Shah Suri.
3. Adil Shah Suri ruled from Agra to Bihar.

Hemu, the brave Hindu general and able prime minister of Muhammad Adil Shah.

  • Hemu came into action and killed Muhammad Khan Suri (who ruled Benagl)

  • He also defeated, the general of Mughals in Agra and then advanced to Delhi.

  • He earned himself the title of Raja Hemachandra Vikramaditya.

  • Mughal forces under Bairam Khan clashed decisively against Hemu in the second battle of Panipat in 1556 and emerged victorious. Hemu was wounded in the eye and was imprisoned. Later on, he was executed.

  • The significance of Second battle of Panipat
    The battle ensured the real restoration of the Mughal power in India.