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World Economic Geography


Asia China




Dzungarin Basin


  • Dry region
  • Surrounded by steppe grassland
  • Uighur population
  • Russia’s Irtysh river: inland drainage
  • Urumqi – capital of XinJiang Uyghur autonomous region-located here


Tarim Basin


  • Drained by Tarim river
  • Lop Nur lake- nuclear testing center of China


Qaidam Basin


  • Salty marshy land
  • Large Petroleum reserve – Mangnai ● Iron ore – Golmud
  • Source of Potash, boron
  • Wheat cultivation using irrigation
  • Qaidam basin is located in Qinghai province ● Qinghai – China’s largest producer ofLithium.
  • Source of potassium, silicon, magnesium ● More than 30 salt lakes


Agriculture in China


  • 10-15% of China is arable ● Intensive agriculture
  • Rice cultivation – largest rice production
  • Largest producer of rice, wheat, cotton, ground nut, rapeseed, silk
  • Hwang Ho Basin –  wheat cultivation
  • Yangtze Basin – intensive agriculture, Sichuan province -rice, Main crops cotton, wheat, barley, maize, beans



Shandong Peninsula


  • Silk
  • Vineyard, apple, pears
  • Tea
  • Iron-ore and Gold is abundant



Manchurian Basin


  • Rich black soil
  • Long winter season
  • Major soya bean growing area
  • Spring wheat, sweet potato, corn (maize), rice, sorghum, and flax
  • Live stock grazing
  • Petroleum, Coal, Iron, Copper, lead, zinc, Uranium
  • Lumbering, paper industries



Coal Reserves

Shanxi – 2/3rd of China’s coal



Iron Ore


Petroleum Reserves




  • China largest producer of Tin and Manganese
  • Gejiu, Yunnan – Tin capital of the world



Rare Earth Metals


  • China produces more than 90% of the world’s supply of rare earth
  • Rare earth 17 chemically similar elements: Monazite, Zircon etc.
  • Rare earth – manufacturing of high-tech products, smartphones, wind turbines, camera lenses, magnets, solar panels and missile defence systems.



Rare Earth Problems


  • Toxic acids used in the refining rare earths
  • Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste
  • Toxic substances include radioactive substances like, Thorium
  • Baotou rare earths enterprises produce 10m tons of wastewater per year.
  • Groundwater reserve have become toxic, about to reach Hwang He waters


Industrial Regions Mukden Triangle


  • Liaoning province
  • Shenyang – Anshan –Fushun
  • Steel triangle of China
  • Electronics, petrochemicals
  • Automobile, aircrafts, heavy machinery
  • Important port – Dalian



Bo Hai Economic Rim


  • Beijing – Tianjin
  • Tianjin – highest per capita GDP of China
  • Metallurgical & ship building industries
  • Now hub of shipping and logistics
  • Textile, automobile, petrochemical



Yangtze Basin


  • Shanghai –steel, textile, ship building. Largest port of China. World’s busiest container port
  • Financial center of China
  • Nanking –textile
  • Wuhan – steel industries
  • Chengdu – petroleum reserve, iron reserve, Petrochemical industries



Guangzhou-Macau Region


  • Guangzhou:
  • On pearl river
  • Earliest SEZ of China
  • Famous for finished goods and light industries
  • Close to Hong Kong and Macau




Asia Japan







  • Only 20% of land suitable for agriculture
  • Wet paddy and terraced paddy
  • Wheat, Barley, Soya bean, potatoes, Sweet potatoes
  • Indoor and vertical farming is being practised



Hydroponic Farm




  • One of the largest fishery sector in the world
  • Deep sea fishing, aqua-culture, artificial insemination, modern hatching techniques
  • Recently restarted commercial whaling
  • Meeting of cold current Oyashio and warm current Kuroshio
  • Indented coastline
  • Shallow continental shelf ● Temperate waters



Mineral Resources

  • Japan is world’s largest importer of coal and Natural gas
  • 2ndlargest importer of oil ● Coal – Ishikari coal field in Hokkaido
  • Petroleum- Nigata, Akita



Industrial Regions


Kwanto Plain


  • Kyoto, Chiba, Kawasaki, Yokohama
  • Chief steel producing region of Japan ● Iron from India, Australia
  • Coal from Australia
  • Yokohama – world’s finest natural harbour
  • Tokyo – electrical and engineering goods
  • Kawasaki -Electronics, automobile, cement, glass


Nagoya Plain


  • Nagoya, Gifu, Hamamatsu
  • Leading textile producing region
  • Nagoya automobile capital of Japan


Kinki Plain


  • Kyoto-Kobe and Osaka
  • Kyoto – old capital of Japan, ancient city
  • Osaka – textile, footwear
  • Kobe – oil refinery, petro-chemical
  • Major port and ship building



Kyushu Plain


  • Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Nagasaki
  • Kitakyushu merger of [Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Tobata, Wakamatsu]


Steel industries


  • Fukuoka and Nagasaki – steel industries
  • Hiroshima – automobile and ship building
  • Ube – chemical industries




Asia Russia


Agriculture in Russia


  • Limited growing period
  • 40% pastures and meadows
  • Wheat, Oil-seeds, cotton -important
  • Oat, mustard, corn, sugar beet, flax
  • Potato – very important



Coal in Russia 2nd largest in world



Iron Ore in Russia 5th largest in world


Nickel Norilsk 40% of world’s nickel


Petroleum Reserves


Natural Gas largest in the world


Industrial Regions


Central Region
  • Moscow, Ivanovo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tula
  • Moscow – steel, chemical, machinery
  • Ivanovo – textile
  • Nizhniy Novgorod – automobile
  • Tula – mining, metallurgical industry



St. Petersburg Region


  • St. Petersburg – financial hub
  • 2ndlargest city in Russia
  • oil and gas trade, electronics and IT manufacturing, heavy machinery and textile



Volga Region

  • Perm, Kazan, Samara, Izhevsk, Volgograd
  • Volgograd – oil refinery and steel production
  • Samara- oil refining center ● Rostov- agro-machinery
  • Kazan- mechanical, petrochemical ● Perm- electronics
  • Izhevsk- defence industries




  • Yekaterinburg, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Nizhniy Tagil, Ufa
  • Yekaterinburg – machinery production
  • Magnitogorsk – steel industries ● Iron from Orsk, Serov
  • Chelyabinsk- heavy industries, military machinery
  • Ufa- oil refinery, petro-chemical ● Nizhniy Tagil- metallurgical



Kuzbas Region


  • Omsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk ● Omsk – aerospace manu., agro-processing ●       Tomsk- defence manufacturing
  • Innovation capital of Russia (biotech, IT, medicine, nuclear research)Novosibirsk 3th largest city after Moscow and St. Petersburg
  • Novosibirsk – aircraft manufacturing, HEP engineering, textile, nuclear fuel
  • Novokuznetsk- iron and steel industry



Baikal Region


  • Krasnoyarsk, Bratsk, Irkutsk and Chita
  • Paper and pulp industries, timber, aluminium smelting
  • Krasnoyarsk- largest producer of aluminum
  • Irkutsk: HEP plant, metallurgical industries


Trans Siberian Railway


  • Longest in the world (8960 km) ● St. Petersburg to Vladivostok
  • Via – Moscow, Kazan, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Ulan Ude, Chita
  • Branches to Mongolia, China and North Korea



Asia SE Asia


Important Plateaus

Shan Plateau


  • Rain shadow region ● Millet
  • Tin, Tungsten, lead and sulphur reserve

Korat Plateau

  • Shifting cultivation ● Rubber plantation
  • Nickel, lead, zinc reserve


Agriculture in SE Asia


  • Main source of livelihood except in Brunei and Singapore
  • Wet-paddy cultivation
  • Major export crops of there region are cacao, coffee, and spices



Plantation Agriculture


  • Rubber and palm oil are significant in Malaysia, Indonesia, and southern Thailand
  • Coconuts and sugar are important in the Philippines
  • Cocoa- equatorial crop. Indonesia one of the top producer. Vietnam and Philippines also grow Cocoa
  • The cultivation of opium poppies is important in parts of Myanmar and Thailand.


Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent




Asia West Asia

Tropical Agriculture in West Asia



Mediterranean Agriculture


  • Fruit orchards: oranges, grapes, cherries etc.
  • Turkey – Olives
  • Lebanon – Fruits and Olives
  • Israel -Jaffa oranges, tomatoes and Lime
  • Organic farming



Qanat System of Irrigation


  • Ancient irrigation practice of Iran and Afghanistan
  • Underground irrigation technique
  • Taps underground mountain water source
  • Series of tunnels from the source to places of irrigation



Tal-Ya Irrigation

  • Called Tal-Ya technology
  • Plastic trays Collects Dew – and funnel it to the plants
  • Saves water required for irrigation



Mineral Resources

More than half the world’s oil and 40% of the natural gas reserves



Important Ports of West Asia



Asia Central Asia





Agriculture in Africa


  • Subsistence farming, small farms, family labour, little use of machinery ● Low productivity (except Nile basin and Mediterranean region)
  • Only 6% of farmland in Africa is irrigated. Mostly in Egypt, South Africa, Madagascar, Morocco and Sudan
  • Cultivable lands (excluding forest areas) in Africa are 3 times larger than the land currently cultivated
  • 70% agro-export = cocoa, then coffee, tea, cotton, sugar and fish ● Low diversification in agro-export products
  • Only 25% of cocoa and 6% of cotton is processed in Africa- mostly processed in importing nations
  • Unprocessed = No value addition, industrial development and employment


Mineral Reserves of Africa



North America


Coal Reserves in USA



Petroleum Reserves in USA



Shale Gas Reserves


US Industrial Regions


Agriculture in Canada



Lumbering in Canada


  • British Columbia state (Vancouver) – largest producer of coniferous trees
  • Ontario, Quebec states – hardwood deciduous trees
  • Produce – wood chips, veneer, plywood, wood pallets etc.



Uranium Reserves in Canada 22% of the world’s



Shale Gas in Canada



Industrial Centres



South America