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  • 4th largest railway network
  • Distribution is dense in North Indian plain and eastern coastal plains. Sparse in Peninsular plateau
  • 18 Railway Zones – New zone is South Coast Railway with HQ at Vizag



Dedicated Freight Corridors

  • Reduce congestion on busy lines. ● Improve speed of freight transport making rail freight competitive with road freight.
  • Only goods trains will be allowed and will run at 100 kmph
  • Stronger rails and concrete sleepers to enhance freight carrying capacity


Diamond Quadrilateral


High Speed Rail


Need for High Speed Rail

  • Having an alternative mode of transport will decongest the roads. Also, the speed of bullet trains will save the time and boost the businesses in large cities where time is money. The interconnectedness between the towns and cities would reduce the hassle of commuting thereby helping in reducing the migration.
  • Safety has been one of the major concerns of Indian Railways. The record of bullet trains in the field of safety has been impeccable. The Shinkansen trains of Japan started in 1964 report no fatalities till date.
  • The emissions of CO2 per passenger km from speed rails is way less compared to that of automobiles and aeroplanes. It emits an eighth and a fifth of emissions respectively.
  • It will help in the infrastructure development thereby spurring the economic growth and creating huge employment opportunities.

Railways in the North East


  • Poor Connectivity initially – hilly terrain, low density of population, seismic zone, frequent floods, political unrest.
  • Now, connectivity is being expanded
  • There are plans to provide a railway link for the NE states through 20 major railway projects, encompassing 13 new lines, two gauge conversions and five doublings with a length of nearly 2,624 kilometres.



Railways in the Western Ghats

  • Due to structure and relief of the area construction was difficult.
  • Roha- Mangalore railway line was opened in the Konkan section reducing travel distances and allowing for direct access through the Western Ghats



Problems of Indian Railways


  • Safety
  • Cost and Revenue Problem (Operating ratio 98.4% 2017-18) ● Competition with Roadways
  • Social Burden
  • Electrification and Modernisation


Metro Rail

A metro train is a train that is specifically      designed      to      run in metropolitan cities while local trains are designed to connect the distances within the city and its suburbs areas.

Help in reducing congestion in cities, greater connectivity, safety for women, timely transport

Kolkata first metro, Delhi largest metro network.




  • Oldest mode, 2nd largest in the world.
  • Easier to maintain than railways and can penetrate deeper.
  • Serve as feeders for railways and are more flexible
  • Roads classified as – National Highways , State Highways, District Roads and Village Roads




National Highways – maintained by CPWD and NHAI.

National Highway Development Project (NHDP) is being implemented by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).

Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for the North Eastern Region (SARDP-NE) – improvement of road connectivity to the state capitals with district HQ in North Eastern Region

Road Requirement Plan (RRP) for improvement of road connectivity in Left Wing Extremism (LWE) affected areas of 34 Districts in 8 States covering 5477 km length (1126 km NHs & 4351 km State Roads]



Bharatmala Pariyojana

  • It calls for improvement in efficiency of existing corridors through development of Multimodal Logistics Parks and elimination of choke points.
  • It enhances focus on improving connectivity in North East and leveraging synergies with Inland Waterways. ○ North East Economic corridor enhancing connectivity to state capitals and key towns.

○      Multimodal freight movement via 7 Waterway terminals on River Brahmaputra – Dhubri, Silghat, Biswanath Ghat, Neamati, Dibrugarh, Sengajan, Oriyamgh.

  • It emphasis on the use of technology & scientific planning for project preparation and asset monitoring. ● It calls for seamless connectivity with neighboring countries:

○      24 Integrated check posts (ICPs) identified

○      Transit through Bangladesh to improve North East connectivity

○      Integrating Bangladesh – Bhutan – Nepal and Myanmar – Thailand corridors which will make NorthEast hub of East Asia

  • Satellite mapping of corridors to identify upgradation requirements


Bharatmala Pariyojana


Golden Quadrilateral


The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) is a national highway network connecting most of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India. It forms a quadrilateral connecting the four major metro cities of India, viz., Delhi (north), Kolkata (east), Mumbai (west) and Chennai (south).

North South and East West Corridors consist of building 7300 kilometers of four/six lane expressways associating Srinagar, Kanyakumari, Kochi, Porbandar and Silchar, at a cost of US$12.317 billion



National Highway Grid

  • NHAI has prepared a grid of 27 horizontal and vertical national highway corridors at a distance of every 250 km crisscrossing the country.
  • All stretches will be four laned roads with a total length of 36,600 km.



New Highway Numbering system

  • For all the national highways from North to South, even numbers are used and it is assigned from East to West in the ascending order. In other words, for high longitudes, lower numbers and for lower longitudes high numbers are assigned. As, NH-2 is located in North Eastern States and NH-68 is located in Rajasthan.
  • For all the highways from East to West, odd numbers are assigned. In this case, the highways are named in ascending numbers from East to West. In other words, for high latitudes, lower numbers and for lower latitudes higher numbers are assigned. For example, NH-8 is located in J&K and NH-87 is located in Tamil Nadu.
  • Highways which are denoted by three digit numbers are known as subsidiary highways. For Example, 244, 144, 344 are the branches of National Highway number 44. In the subsidiary highway number, if the first digit is odd, then the highway is located from East to West and if the first digit is even, it is located from North to South.

Problems of Roadways

  • NH only 2% but carry 40% of the traffic
  • Road density is low in India and unevenly distributed
  • High cost of maintaining and building new infrastructure.


  • Fastest Mode of Transport
  • India is now the seventh largest aviation market with 187 million passengers in FY 2017-18 and it is expected to become the third largest by 2022.
  • Air transport began in India in 1911.


Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik RCS

This scheme is a part of the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) and is funded jointly by the GoI and the state governments. The following are its salient features:

  • The scheme duration is for 10 years
  • Airlines participating in UDAN are selected through a competitive bidding process
  • The Central government will provide subsidy to cover Value Gap funding (VGF) for participating airlines, concessional GST on tickets booked using the scheme, codesharing for flights under the policy
  • State Governments will extend GST reduction to 1% for 10 years, coordination with oil companies to facilitate refuelling facilities, provide land for airport and ancillary development, trained security personnel, utilities at subsidised rates, 20% of VGF
  • Airport operators such as AAI will provide the following concessions:

○      No parking, landing and storage charges at participating airports ○     Nil TNLC (Terminal Navigation Landing Charges)

○      Allow ground handling by the airline selected through the bidding process

○      RNCF (Route Navigation and Facilitation Charges) will be discounted to 42.4% of normal rates by the Airports Authority of India

Challenges of Indian Aviation Industry

  • Inadequate Infrastructure ● Financial Health of Airlines ● Air safety and Security
  • Absence of Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul infrastructure (mentioned in Budget 2019-2020)
  • Stagnant Air cargo traffic


  • India has 14,500 km of inland waterways comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks etc.
  • In India only 0.15 per cent of domestic surface transport is accounted for by IWT, compared with 68 per cent for road and 30 per cent for rail
  • As per the National Waterways Act, 2016, 111 have been declared as National Waterways (NW)
  • These waterways pass through 24 states and two union territories, with an approximate total length of 20274 km
  • These proposed waterways will pass through nearly 138 river systems, creeks, estuaries and related canal systems of India.
  • The first waterway to be declared National was the Allahabad to Haldia stretch of the Ganga – Bhagirathi-Hoogly.
  • In 1972, India and Bangladesh signed the Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade (PIWTT).It is an agreement between the two governments for the transportation of goods and keeping their respective waterways navigable, while providing infrastructure facilities



Advantages of Inland Waterways

  1. 1. Fuel and Energy Efficient: It is fuel-efficient compared to the other modes of transport, rail and road. For example, the Integrated National Waterways Transportation Grid Study states that one litre of fuel will move 24 tons through one kilometre on road, 85 on rail and 105 km on inland water transport. Further, 1 HP can move 150 kg on road, 500 kg on rail and 4000 kg on water.
  2. 2. Cost of developing waterways is much lower than rail & road. 3. Reduces transportation and transition losses
  3. 4. Environment Friendly – Least fuel consumption per tonne‐km, Carbon dioxide emission is 50% of trucks 5. Negligible land requirement as compared to rail and road transport
  4. 6. Reduces pressure on road and rail
  5. 7. It will provide optimal modal mix by converging river transport with other modes
  6. 8. Better connectivity: It help create seamless interconnectivity connecting hinterlands along navigable river coasts and coastal routes. Further, riverine routes are likely to play a crucial role in connecting the north-eastern states to the mainland
  7. 9. Inland Waterways hold huge potential for domestic cargo transport, cruise, tourism and passenger traffic. 10. Development of inland waterways will help in the generation of job opportunities





  • India has a coastline spanning 7516.6 kilometres, forming one of the biggest peninsulas in the world.
  • According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95 per cent of India’s trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done through maritime transport.
  • It is serviced by 13 major ports (12 Government-owned and one private) and 187 notified minor and intermediate ports. The total 200 major and non-major ports are present in the following States:- Maharashtra (53); Gujarat (40); Tamil Nadu (15); Karnataka (10) and others (82)


Major and Minor Ports

  • A major port is one which is administered, maintained and developed by the Central Government through the instrument of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963. The members of the Port Trust as well as its Chairman are appointed by the Central Government.
  • According to the Ports (Technical) Committee of India (1948), the facilities at a major port should include an all-weather sheltered harbour, modern berths which can take alongside steamers with at least 9.14 m draft, as also direct road and rail links with the hinterland.
  • The intermediate and minor ports fall under the Concurrent List, i.e., list III in the 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution and are administratively under the control of the respective State Governments, the Centre providing only technical assistance.


World Ports by Gross Tonnage Handled

  • Shanghai, China ● Singapore
  • Shenzhen, China
  • Ningbo-Zhushan, China ● Guangzhou, China
  • Busan, South Korea ● Hong Kong, China ● Qingdao, China
  • Tianjin, China
  • Jebel Ali, Dubai

29 – JNPT

34 – Mundra

Shanghai handles ten times the cargo



  • India is lacking the high quantity of international trade via coastal line due to the lack of infrastructure facilities and advanced coastal technologies.
  • The cost of shipping/evacuating goods through Indian maritime transport is quite high compared to that of China, South Korea, Japan and other developed countries. This makes Indian goods uncompetitive in the international market.
  • China, South Korea and Japan have effectively used their coastline for ‘port-led development’. India has to replicate their model to stay competitive.


Sagarmala Objectives

  • Decreasing cost of transporting domestic cargo by optimising modal mix.
  • Identifying future industrial capacities near the coasts to reduce the logistics cost of bulk commodities.
  • Developing discrete manufacturing clusters close to ports in order to enhance export competitiveness.
  • Optimising the time-cost of export-import container movement.

The project seeks to lower the logistics cost for export-import and domestic cargo through optimised investment in infrastructure. The scheme also seeks to create up to 40 lakh new direct jobs and 60 lakh new indirect jobs.


Four components:

  1. 1. Port Modernization & New Port Development – extending the capacity of existing ports and developing new ports
  2. 2. Port Connectivity Enhancement – improving port-hinterland connectivity, optimizing cost and time of cargo movement through multi-modal logistics solutions including domestic waterways
  3. 3. Port-linked Industrialization – Developing industrial clusters close to ports and developing Coastal Economic Zones
  4. 4. Coastal Community Development – Promoting sustainable development of coastal communities through skill development & livelihood generation activities, fisheries development, coastal tourism, etc.



List of 14 Coastal Economic Zones 












Petrochemicals, Cement, Furniture






Apparel, Automotive






Marine Clusters


North Konkan




Power, Electronics, Apparel


South Konkan


Maharashtra, Goa


Refining, Steel, Food Processing


Dakshin Kanara
















Tamil Nadu


Apparel, Refining




Tamil Nadu


Leather Processing, Power


VCIC South


Tamil Nadu


Steel, Petrochemicals, Electronics, Shipbuilding


VCIC Central


Andhra Pradesh




VCIC North


Andhra Pradesh


Food Processing, Petrochemicals, Cement, Apparel






Petrochemicals, Marine Processing




West Bengal


Leather Processing


Six new Megaports


Dry Port

A dry port (sometimes inland port) is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.





India Population Characteristics

  • Current population is 1,317,000,864 (1.31 billion)
  • 2.4% of the land and 17.75% of the World’s population ● India’s current yearly growth rate is 1.02%.
  • The country as a whole has a population density of 416 people per square kilometer, which ranks 31st in the world.
  • India median age 27.1 years.
  • India is expected to add nearly 273 million people between 2019 and 2050 ● India, projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country

around 2027


Growth of Population : Basic Concepts

  • Natural growth rate = Natural birth rate – natural death rate
  • Positive growth rate = when population increases between two given points of time Positive = (Natural growth rate + Immigration) > (Death rate + Emigration)
  • Negative growth rate = when population decreases between two given points of time

Negative= (Natural growth rate + Immigration) < (Death rate + Emigration)

India decadal growth rate




Period of Stagnant Population Growth

  • The year 1921 is called the demographic divide due to the decline that took place in the decade in place of the rise.
  • This period was characterised by high mortality due to diseases and epidemics such as influenza, plague, cholera, small pox etc.
  • Food shortages caused severe famines in 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918 and 1920. In addition several Indian soldiers lost their lives in World War 1.
  • This period also so emigration to a number of countries in Africa.


Period of Steady Growth

  • Due to improvements in general health and sanitation conditions after 1921, mortality rates declined considerably but birth rates continued to be high.
  • This period population growth is called mortality induced growth rates.


Period of Rapid High Growth

  • After 1951, there was a steep fall in mortality but fertility remained stubbornly high. This period saw rapid rates of population increase and is known as the period of population explosion
  • Birth rate increased from 40 per 1000 to 41 per 1000 from 1951 to 1981 while death rates fell from 27/1000 in 1951 to 12/1000.
  • This period is known as fertility induced growth period.
  • Health conditions improved and so did the standard of living.


Period of High Growth Rate with Definite Signs of Slowing


  • The fertility rates also started to decline during this period as the cost of living increased and family structures changed from joint to nuclear.


Demographic Transition

Stage 1 : High birth and death rates, low growth rate

Stage 2: Rapid decline in death rate, high birth rate, very high growth rate

Stage 3: Rapid decline in birth rate, continued decline in growth rate, growth rate begins to decline

Stage 4: Low birth and death rates, low growth rate



Population Pyramid

A population pyramid, also called an “age-sex- pyramid”, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid  when the    population is growing.



Population Pyramid Types




Population Pyramid of India


Total Fertility Rate

A Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 represents the Replacement-Level Fertility: the average number of children per woman needed for each generation to exactly replace itself without needing international immigration. A value below 2.1 will cause the native population to decline

India current Total Fertility Rate is at 2.2 based on the latest Sample Registration System Compiled by Registrar General of India in 2017

Among the states, Bihar reported the highest TFR (3.2), about twice that of Kerala (1.7) and Delhi (1.5), which scored the lowest. In 23 states and UTs it is below Replacement Rate.

In urban areas, the TFR has come down from 4.1to 1.7 from 1971 to 2017 whereas the corresponding decline in rural areas has been from 5.4 to 2.4 during the same period.


Reasons for Falling TFR


  • Higher education
  • Increased mobility
  • Late marriage
  • Financially independent women and
  • Overall prosperity


Empowering Women



Demographic Dividend


  • The economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure, mainly when the share of the working-age population is larger than the non-working-age share of the population
  • India has entered a 37-year period of demographic dividend, which could spell faster economic growth and higher productivity.
  • The dependency ratio is a measure of the number of dependents aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, compared with the total population aged 15 to 64.



Sex ratio


The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1.

Sex Ratio of India is 107.48, i.e., 107.48 males per 100 females in 2019. It means that India has 930 females per 1000 males. In absolute terms, India has 48.20% female population compare to 51.80% male population.




Reasons for Low Sex ratio


  • Violence against women. ● Abortion of fetus.
  • Female infanticide. ● Rape and murder ● Honor Killings
  • Illiteracy among men.
  • viewing women as object of desires
  • poor understanding of what feminism is. ● No sex education in our schools.
  • Women being treated badly my dominant males in the family. ● Failure to teach equality values.
  • Religious dogma with no scientific proof or basis


Child Sex Ratio


As per the Census, 2011 the child sex ratio (0-6 years) has shown a decline from 927 females per thousand males in 2001 to 919 females per thousand males in 2011.


Some of the reasons for neglect of girl child and low child sex ratio are son preference and the belief that it is only the son who can perform the last rites, that lineage and inheritance runs through the male line, sons will look after parents in old age, men are the bread winners etc. Exorbitant dowry demand is another reason for female foeticide/infanticide. Small family norm coupled with easy availability of sex determination tests may be a catalyst in the declining child sex ratio, further facilitated by easy availability of Pre-conception sex selection facilities.


Sex ratio at Birth


In the human species the ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male sex. The natural “sex ratio at birth” is often considered to be around 105. This means that at birth on average, there are 105 males for every 100 females.

Nature provides that the number of newborn males slightly outnumber newborn females because as they grow up, men are at a higher risk of dying than women not only due to sex differentials in natural death rates, but also due to higher risk from external causes (accidents, injuries, violence, war casualties). Thus, the sex ratio of total population is expected to equalize. Instead if a country’s population sex ratio does not equalize or rather exceeds the 105-threshold, it means societies with a dominating preference for male child tend to intervene in nature and reduce the number of born girl child by sex-selective abortion and infanticide.

Literacy Rate


In the census 2011, a person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate. A person, who can only read but can’t write, is not literate. India’s literacy rate is at 74.04%.Kerala is the most literate state in India, with 93.91% literacy. Bihar is the least literate state in India, with a literacy of 63.82%





Ageing Population


A rapidly aging population means there are fewer working-age people in the economy. This leads to a supply shortage of qualified workers, making it more difficult for businesses to fill in-demand roles.

Given that demand for health care rises with age, countries with rapidly aging populations must allocate more money and resources to their health care systems.

Countries with large elderly populations depend on smaller pools of workers in which to collect taxes to pay for higher health costs, pension benefits and other publicly funded programs.

An economy with a significant share of seniors and retirees has different demand drivers than an economy with a higher birth rate and a larger working-age population. For example, rapidly aging populations tend to have greater demands for health care services and retirement homes.




Factors that Affect Distribution of Population


  • Physical factors – Terrain, Climate, Soil, Water bodies, mineral resources ● Socio-Economic and Historical Factors – Industries, Transport network,

Urbanization, Religion etc.


Population Distribution in India



Questions for the Day


  • Discuss the objectives of Project Sagarmala and the means to achieve these objectives. (250 words)
  • Discuss the demographic transition in India’s population and the current state. (250 words)
  • How can India meet the needs of the ageing populations of Western Europe and Japan? (150 words)