Major and Minor Minerals
- According to section 3(e) of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 “Minor Minerals” means building stones, gravel, ordinary clay, ordinary sand other than sand used for prescribed purposes, and any other mineral which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a minor mineral. (For the purposes of this Act, the word “minerals” includes all minerals except mineral oils- natural gas and petroleum)
- Major minerals are those specified in the first schedule appended in the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 (MMDR Act 1957) and the common major minerals are Lignite, Coal, Uranium, iron ore, gold etc. It may be noted that there is no official definition for “major minerals” in the MMDR Act. Hence, whatever is not declared as a “minor mineral” may be treated as the major mineral.
- The major-minor classification has nothing to do with the quantum /availability of these minerals, though it is correlated with the relative value of these minerals. Further, this classification is based more on their end use, rather than level of production, level of mechanization, export and import etc. (eg. Sand can be a major mineral or a minor mineral depending on where it is used; same is the case for limestone.)
- The central government has the power to notify “minor minerals” under section 3 (e) of the MMDR Act, 1957. On the other hand, as per Section 15 of the MMDR Act, 1957 State Governments have complete powers for making Rules for grant of concessions in respect of extraction of minor minerals and levy and collection of royalty on minor minerals.
- Coal has originated from organic matter wood. Large tracts of forest lands were buried under sediments in the geological past i.e. Carboniferous age.
- During the process of change from wood to coal, the amount of oxygen and nitrogen decreases and the proportion of carbon increases.
- The percentage of carbon depends upon the duration and intensity of heat and pressure on wood.
Varieties of Coal
Depending on the grade from highest to lowest:
- Anthracite coal (80-95% carbon, little volatile matter and moisture)
- Bituminous coal(40-80% carbon, 15 to 40% moisture and volatile content) ● Lignite (40-55% carbon, moisture content is over 35%). It gives much smoke and little heat.
- Peat (less than 40-55% carbon)
Occurence of Coal in India
- 98% of total reserves. It is the storehouse of India’s metallurgical as well as superior quality coal. It is about 250 million years old.
- Of the 113 major coal fields, 80 are located in rock systems of the lower Gondwana Age.
- There are about 75 separate basins covering an area of 77,700 sq km located in Peninsular India. These basins occur in the valleys of certain rivers – Damodar, Mahanadi, Son, Godavari, Wardha, Indravati, Narmada, Koel, Pench etc.
- Anthracite is generally not found in the Gondwana fields.
Occurence of Coal in India
- Tertiary rock system bears coals from a younger age – 15-60 million years ago and are mainly confined to the extra-Peninsular region. For example Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Himalayan foothills of Darjeeling, J&K, UP, Rajasthan, Kerala, TN and Puducherry.
Distribution of Coal in India
Important Coal Mines in India
GONDWANA COAL FIELDS
- Jharkhand – Jharia, Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Daltenganj, Gilhuria, Rajmahal, Brahmani, Devgarh, Giridih, Raniganj, Ramgarh
- Chattisgarh – Korba, Birampur, Hasdo-Arand, Chirmiri, Lakhanpur, Jhilmili, Johilla, Tatapani – Ramkota
- Odisha – Talcher, Raniganj, Rampur – Himgir, Ib, Lajkuria, Gamhadera
- MP – Singrauli, Jhingurda, Panipahari, Khadia, Purewa, Turra, Pench-Kanhan-Tawa, Sohagpur, Umaria
- MH – Kamptee Coal fields, Wardha valley, Ghughus, Ballarpur, Warora, Wun ● WB – Raniganj, Dalingkot (Darjeeling),Tindharia, Jalpaiguri
- AP&Telangana – Tandur, Singareni, Kothagudam
Important Coal Mines in India
TERTIARY COAL FIELDS
- Assam – Makum, Nazira, Mikir Hills, Dilli-Jeypore, Lakhuni
- Meghalaya – Darrangiri (Garo Hills), Siju, Cherrapunji, Liotryngew, Maolong, Langrin (Khasi and Jaintia Hills)
- Arunachal Pradesh – Namchik-Namrup coalfield in Tirap District.
Other coalfields include Kalakot, Jangali, Chinkah, Metka, Maholgala, Ladde in J&K and Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh.
- Lignite deposits are found in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, J&K, Kerala, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Puducherry.
- Tamil Nadu accounts for 90% of the reserves. Neyveli Lignite fields are the largest deposits of lignite in south east Asia.
Problems of Coal Mining in India
- The distribution of coal is uneven
- Indian coal has high ash content and low caloric value
- A large percentage of coal is taken out from underground mines where productivity of labour and machinery is very low.
- There are heavy losses due to fires in the mines and at pit heads.
- Mining and utilisation of coal leads to serious environmental problems.
Petroleum and Natural Gas
- Petroleum is an inflammable liquid that is composed of hydrocarbons which constitute 90-95% of petroleum and the remaining is chiefly organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and traces of organo-metallic compounds.
- It is of organic origin and is found in the sedimentary basins, shallow depressions and in the seas (past and present).
- Most of the oil reserves are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the sedimentary rock formations of tertiary times.
Occurance of Oil
Though oil is found in sedimentary rocks, not all sedimentary rocks contain oil. An oil reservoir must have three pre-requisite conditions:
- Porosity so as to accommodate sufficiently large amounts of oil
- Permeability to discharge oil and/or gas when well has been drilled
- Porous sand beds sandstone, conglomerates of fissured limestone containing oil should be capped by impervious beds so that oil does not get dissipated by percolation in the surrounding rocks.
Occurance of Oil in India
- Onshore basins
- Offshore basins in the continental shelf.
- Largest reserves in the Western Offshore region (40%), followed by Assam (27%)
Major Oil Fields
- Assam – Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran-Hugrijan
- Arunachal Pradesh – Manabhum, Kharsang, Charali
- Tripura – Mamunbhanga, Baramura – Deotamura Subhang, Manu, Ampi Bazar, Amarpur-Dambura
- Gujarat – Ankleshwar, Lunej, Kalol, Mawgam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol, Mehsana, Sanand
- Rajasthan – Barmer district
Offshore – Mumbai High, Bassein, Aliabet, KG Basin (Rawa field), Cauvery region
Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves (ISPR)
- In the event of a major disruption due to political or natural disaster, countries holding reserves could increase the available supply of oil by releasing some portion of their reserves. The increased supply would moderate price increases caused by the disaster.
- To ensure energy security, the Government of India had decided to set up 5 million metric tons (MMT) of strategic crude oil storages at three locations namely, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore and Padur (near Udupi). These strategic storages would be in addition to the existing storages of crude oil and petroleum products with the oil companies and would serve as a cushion during any external supply disruptions.
- In the 2017-18 budget, it was announced that two more such caverns will be set up Chandikhole in Jajpur district of Odisha and Bikaner in Rajasthan as part of the second phase.
- Natural gas usually accompanies petroleum accumulations.
- Whenever a well for oil is drilled, it is natural gas that is struck first.
- The recoverable reserves of natural gas in India are estimated at 700 bcm.
- Major onshore gas producing states are Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.
- Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas.
- As per the US EIA 2015 report, India has got technically recoverable shale gas of 96 trillion cubic feet. The recoverable reserves are identified in Cambay, Krishna – Godavari, Cauvery, Damodar Valley, Upper Assam, Pranahita – Godavari, Rajasthan and Vindhya Basins. The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation has drilled the first exploratory shale gas well in Jambusar near Vadodara, Gujarat, in Cambay basin during October 2013. It is estimated that from this basin around 20 TCF shale gas is recoverable.
Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. The process involves the high-pressure injection of ‘fracking fluid’ into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely
Coal Bed Methane
Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is an unconventional form of natural gas found in coal deposits or coal seams. CMB is formed during the process of coalification, the transformation of plant material into coal.
The country has 9.9 trillion cubic feet of recoverable Coal Bed Methane (CBM). The CBM is extracted from virgin coal mines. At present CBM is produced from four blocks – Jharia in Jharkhand, Raniganj East and South in West Bengal and Sohagpur West in Madhya Pradesh.
Pipelines are convenient efficient and economical mode of transporting liquids like petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas, water, milk etc.
Even solids can be transported in the form of slurry.
India has a network of more than 14000 km.
- They are ideally suited to transport liquids and gases.
- They can be laid through difficult terrain and under water.
- Low energy consumption ● Little maintenance
- Safe, accident free and environment friendly.
- Not flexible
- Capacity cannot be increased once laid
- Difficult to make security arrangements for pipelines.
- Difficult to repair underground pipelines.
Important Pipelines in India
- Naharkatia-Nunmati-Barauni Pipeline
- Mumbai High – Mumbai – Ankleshwar – Koyali Pipeline ● Salaya – Koyali – Mathura Pipeline
- Hajira – Bijapur – Jagdishpur (HBJ) Gas Pipeline ● Jamnagar – Loni Pipeline
- Kandla – Bhatinda Pipeline
- Chennai -Trichy – Madurai Oil Pipeline ● Mundra – Delhi Oil Pipeline
TAPI Gas Pipeline
- From Galkynysh Gas Field in Turkmenistan to Fazilka in India
- Length of 1814 km
- Capacity of 33 bcm/year. Out of which 14 each for Pakistan and India and 5 bcm for Afghanistan.
- Challenges – Security, Maintenance, India-Pakistan relations.
Other International Pipelines
- Iran- Pakistan – India (proposed)
- Motihari – Amlekhganj pipeline between India and Pakistan for petroleum products was recently inaugurated.
- Bangladesh – India Friendship Pipeline between India and Bangladesh was inaugurated in 2018. It will run from Siliguri to Parbatipur.
National Gas Grid
- The Government has envisaged to develop the National Gas Grid. At present about 16,788 Km natural gas pipeline is operational and about 14,239 Km gas pipelines are being developed to increase the availability of natural gas across the country.
- PNGRB has authorized GAIL to develop Jagadishpur –Haldia –Bokaro- Dhamra Pipeline (JHBDPL) project and approximately 750 km long Barauni – Guwahati pipeline as its integral part which will connect North East region with the National Gas Grid.
Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy
Four main facets of this policy are:
- uniform license for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbon, ● an open acreage policy,
- easy to administer revenue sharing model and
- marketing and pricing freedom for the crude oil and natural gas produced.
The decision will enhance domestic oil & gas production, bring substantial investment in the sector and generate sizable employment. The policy is also aimed at enhancing transparency and reducing administrative discretion.
- A biofuel is any liquid fuel derived from biological material such as trees, agricultural wastes, crops, or grass. Biofuel can be produced from any carbon source that can be replenished rapidly, such as plants.
- Biofuels are substitutes for conventional fossil fuels, such as petroleum, propane, coal, and natural gas. They contain no sulfur and produce low carbon monoxide and toxic emissions.
Biofuels are generally classified into three categories. They are
- 1. First generation biofuels – First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. Common first-generation biofuels include Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, Biogas.
- 2. Second generation biofuels – These are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Examples include advanced biofuels like biohydrogen, biomethanol.
- 3. Third generation biofuels – These are produced from microorganisms like algae.
National Policy on Biofuels
- The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel and “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels, Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
- The Policy expands the scope of raw material for ethanol production by allowing use of Sugarcane Juice, Sugar containing materials like Sugar Beet, Sweet Sorghum, Starch containing materials like Corn, Cassava, Damaged food grains like wheat, broken rice, Rotten Potatoes, unfit for human consumption for ethanol production.
- Farmers are at a risk of not getting appropriate price for their produce during the surplus production phase. Taking this into account, the Policy allows use of surplus food grains for production of ethanol for blending with petrol with the approval of National Biofuel Coordination Committee.
- With a thrust on Advanced Biofuels, the Policy indicates a viability gap funding scheme for 2G ethanol Bio refineries of Rs.5000 crore in 6 years in addition to additional tax incentives, higher purchase price as compared to 1G biofuels.
- The Policy encourages setting up of supply chain mechanisms for biodiesel production from non-edible oilseeds, Used Cooking Oil, short gestation crops.
Benefits of National Policy on Biofuels.
- Reduce Import Dependency: One crore lit of E10 saves Rs.28 crore of forex at current rates. The ethanol supply year 2017-18 is likely to see a supply of around 150 crore litres of ethanol which will result in savings of over Rs.4000 crore of forex.
- Cleaner Environment: One crore lit of E-10 saves around 20,000 ton of CO2emissions. For the ethanol supply year 2017-18, there will be lesser emissions of CO2 to the tune of 30 lakh ton. By reducing crop burning & conversion of agricultural residues/wastes to biofuels there will be further
reduction in Green House Gas emissions.
- Health benefits: Prolonged reuse of Cooking Oil for preparing food, particularly in deep-frying is a potential health hazard and can lead to many diseases. Used Cooking Oil is a potential feedstock for biodiesel and its use for making biodiesel will prevent diversion of used cooking oil in the food industry.
- MSW Management: It is estimated that, annually 62 MMT of Municipal Solid Waste gets generated in India. There are technologies available which can convert waste/plastic, MSW to drop in fuels. One ton of such waste has the potential to provide around 20% of drop in fuels.
Benefits of National Policy on Biofuels
- Infrastructural Investment in Rural Areas: It is estimated that, one 100klpd bio refinery will require around Rs.800 crore capital investment. At present Oil Marketing Companies are in the process of setting up twelve 2G bio refineries with an investment of around Rs.10,000 crore. Further addition of 2G bio refineries across the Country will spur infrastructural investment in the rural areas.
- Employment Generation: One 100 klpd 2G bio refinery can contribute 1200 jobs in Plant Operations, Village Level Entrepreneurs and Supply Chain Management.
- Additional Income to Farmers: By adopting 2G technologies, agricultural residues/waste which otherwise are burnt by the farmers can be converted to ethanol and can fetch a price for these waste if a market is developed for the same. Also, farmers are at a risk of not getting appropriate price for their produce during the surplus production phase. Thus conversion of surplus grains and agricultural biomass can help in price stabilization.
- From fossil fuel based sources such as coal, diesel, natural gas.
- MH is the largest producer of thermal electricity followed by Gujarat, AP, WB, TN and UP.
- 6780 MW of electricity is currently being generated.
- 7000 MW – new projects. 10 PHWRs
- The ten reactors will be installed in Kaiga in Karnataka (Unit 5 and 6), Chutka in Madhya Pradesh (Unit 1 and 2), Gorakhpur in Haryana (Unit 3 and 4) and Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan (Unit 1, 2, 3 and 4).
Three-stage Nuclear Energy Programme
- Classified as a Renewable Energy Source.
- Estimated potential 148,700 MW ● Northern rivers have better
potential of hydroelectricity generation – fast flowing, perennial, adequate head.
- Southern region – upper river basin topography, absence of coal
Non- Conventional Energy Sources
- Solar thermal ● Photovoltaic
- NSM target = 60 GW ground mounted + 40 GW rooftop solar
- SRISTI scheme for rooftop solar
- Wind energy accounts for nearly 44% of the renewable energy installations.
- Wind potential is highest in Gujarat, AP, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka then Maharashtra
- TN followed by Maharashtra and Gujarat has the highest wind energy installed capacity.
National Offshore Wind Energy Policy, 2015
- Offshore wind energy generation up to 200 nm.
- Estimated potential 127 GW mainly off the coasts of Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Maharashtra
- National Institute of Wind Energy is the Nodal Agency.
National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy, 2018
Promotion of large grid connected wind -solar PV hybrid system for efficient utilization of transmission infrastructure and land.
Promote new hybrid projects as well as hybridisation of existing wind/solar projects.
- About 340 hot spring localities have been identified for geothermal energy generation.
- There are seven geothermal provinces in India : the Himalayas, Sohana, West coast, Cambay, Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA), Godavari, and Mahanadi.
- Important areas in which geothermal sites are J&K (Puga Valley in Ladakh), HP (Manikaran), Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh (Tattapani)
- Estimated Potential 10 GW
- Based upon the use of dung to produce gas which is used as domestic fuel especially in the rural areas.
- Technique is based on the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of air to yield gas consisting of methane and carbon dioxide.
- It has higher thermal efficiency than kerosene, firewood, dung and charcoal.
- Estimated 1-1.5 billion tonnes of waste dung is available per year.
- It could not only yield energy but yield manure equivalent to 14 mt of Nitrogen, 13 mt of phosphate and 0.9 mt of potash.
Waste to Energy
Process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source.
Processes – gasification, pyrolysis, incineration
Estimated potential 5600 MW. Only 330 MW utilised.
Problems – wet, unsegregated, low calorific value, high tariff.
Location of Industries
- Geographical Factors – Raw materials, power, labour, transport, market, water, climate
- Non-Geographical Factors – Capital, Government Policy, Industrial inertia, Banking facilities
Footloose industry is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport. These industries often have spatially fixed costs, which means that the costs of the products do not change despite where the product is assembled.
- Cotton Textile ● Iron and Steel ● Cement
- Cost of transporting raw material nearly equals cost of transport of finished product
- Humid climate, tropical climate good for fiber.
- Located near major transport links.
Iron and Steel Industry
- Raw material Based ● Port Based
- Market Based
Raw material Based
- Steel sector – weight losing industry
- Weight of raw material is higher than final product- steel ● That’s why located near sources of raw materials
Example – Durgapur, Rourkela, Bokaro
Raw material needed – Iron, Limestone, Coking coal, Manganese, Chromite
Visvesvaraya Steel Plant
Bhadravati in Shimoga (Karnataka)
Sharavathi Hydel Project for electricity
Vijayanagar steel plant
Hospet in Bellary, Karnataka
Coal from Chhattisgarh and Singareni coal field of AP
Salem steel plant
Rich iron ore and limestone
Iron – Dalli Rajhara Coking coal – Zaria Coal- Korba Limstone –Akaltara
Manganese – Balaghat
Iron- Dalli Rajhara coal- Jharia
Manganese- Badam pahar Limestone – Birmitrapur
Iron – Kemmangundi, Kudremukh Coal- Neyveli
Energy- HEP form Jog fall and Krishnaraja sagar dam on Kaveri
Visakhapatnam steel Plant, Andhra Pradesh. 1st shore based steel plant Resources:
- Iron – Bailadila, Chhattisgarh ● Limestone- Chhattisgarh
- Coal from Damodar valley, Jharkhand ● Metallurgical coal from Australia
- Energy- Balimela HEP on Godavari ● Natural gas from KG Basin
- Export to Japan
Mini Steel Plants
- <10,000 ton annually
- Steel from steel scrap/ sponge iron sell further to mills ● Gestation period is short
- Large steel plants produce mild steel
- Mini steel plants produce mild steel + alloy steel + stainless steel ● Located near consumption market
- E.g. Rathi steel (MP), Alang steel (GJ)
Challenges Faced by Indian Steel Industry
- High cost of power ● High rate of interest
- Low labour productivity
- Poor infrastructure –transport ● Less investment on R&D
- Low quality, and less flexibility over latest demands
- Non-availability of metallurgical coking coal – high ash content [relay on import] ● Key ingredients: nickel, molybdenum- not available
- Falling prices, stagnant demand – over-supply
National Steel Policy, 2017
Key features of the NSP 2017:
- Create self-sufficiency in steel production by providing policy support & guidance to private manufacturers, MSME steel producers, CPSEs
- Encourage adequate capacity additions,
- Development of globally competitive steel manufacturing capabilities, ● Cost-efficient production
- Domestic availability of iron ore, coking coal & natural gas, ● Facilitating foreign investment
- Asset acquisitions of raw materials &
- Enhancing the domestic steel demand.
The policy projects crude steel capacity of 300 million tonnes (MT), production of 255 MT and a robust finished steel per capita consumption of 158 Kgs by 2030 – 31, as against the current consumption of 61 Kgs. The policy also envisages to domestically meet the entire demand of high grade automotive steel, electrical steel, special steels and alloys for strategic applications and increase domestic availability of washed coking coal so as to reduce import dependence on coking coal from about 85% to around 65% by 2030-31.
- Location based on source of limestone
- 1.5 ton of limestone require to produce 1 ton of cement ● Coal is another important requirement
- Energy intensive industry
- Coal is need to burn the limestone. Ash of burnt coal is mixed with limestone to make clinker
- Mumbai – Pune ● Hugli
- Bengaluru – Tamil Nadu ● Gujarat
- Vishakhapatnam – Guntur ● Gurgaon – Delhi – Meerut
- Kollam – Thiruvananthapuram
An industrial corridor is a package of infrastructure spending allocated to a specific geographical area, with the intent to stimulate industrial development. An industrial corridor aims to create an area with a cluster of manufacturing or other industry.
An industrial corridor is basically a corridor comprising of multi-modal transport services that would pass through the states as main artery. Freight cargo from industrial and NMIZ located upto a distance of 100-150 km on both sides of this main artery will be brought to the industrial corridor via rail and road feeder links that shall provide last mile connectivity. This will lower costs of logistics and enable firms to focus on their areas of core competence.
Characteristics of Industrial Corridors
Industrial corridors constitute world class infrastructure such as high-speed transportation (rail, road) network, ports with state-of- the-art cargo handling equipment, modern airports, special economic regions/ industrial areas, logistic parks/transshipment hubs, knowledge parks focused on feeding industrial needs, complementary infrastructure such as townships/ real estate, and other urban infrastructure along with enabling policy framework.
National Investment and Manufacturing Zones
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor
- From Delhi to Mumbai
- Eight NIMZs located along the DMIC
- It includes 24 industrial regions, eight smart cities, two international airports, five power projects, two mass rapid transit systems, and two logistical hubs
- It extends across 7 states
Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor
- It spans 7 states and 20 cities
- It runs along the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor and NW 1
Bengaluru – Mumbai Industrial Corridor
- It runs along NH 4, Bengaluru Mumbai Railway line and Dabhol-Bengaluru gas pipeline
- It passes through Maharashtra and Karnataka
East Coast Economic Corridor
- 2500 km of coastline
- To be developed with the help of ADB
- Three parts – Odisha and West Bengal Industrial Corridor, VCIC and Chennai Kanyakumari Industrial Corridor.
- 4th largest railway network
- Distribution is dense in North Indian plain and eastern coastal plains. Sparse in Peninsular plateau
- 18 Railway Zones – New zone is South Coast Railway with HQ at Vizag
Dedicated Freight Corridors
- Reduce congestion on busy lines. ● Improve speed of freight transport
making rail freight competitive with road freight.
- Only goods trains will be allowed and will run at 100 kmph.
- Stronger rails and concrete sleepers to enhance freight carrying capacity
High Speed Rail
Need for High Speed Rail
- Having an alternative mode of transport will decongest the roads. Also, the speed of bullet trains will save the time and boost the businesses in large cities where time is money. The interconnectedness between the towns and cities would reduce the hassle of commuting thereby helping in reducing the migration.
- Safety has been one of the major concerns of Indian Railways. The record of bullet trains in the field of safety has been impeccable. The Shinkansen trains of Japan started in 1964 report no fatalities till date.
- The emissions of CO2 per passenger km from speed rails is way less compared to that of automobiles and aeroplanes. It emits an eighth and a fifth of emissions respectively.
- It will help in the infrastructure development thereby spurring the economic growth and creating huge employment opportunities.
Railways in the North East
- Poor Connectivity initially – hilly terrain, low density of population, seismic zone, frequent floods, political unrest.
- Now, connectivity is being expanded
- There are plans to provide a railway link for the NE states through 20 major railway projects, encompassing 13 new lines, two gauge conversions and five doublings with a length of nearly 2,624 kilometres.
Railways in the Western Ghats
- Due to structure and relief of the area construction was difficult.
- Roha- Mangalore railway line was opened in the Konkan section reducing travel distances and allowing for direct access through the Western Ghats
Problems of Indian Railways
- Cost and Revenue Problem (Operating ratio 98.4% 2017-18) ● Competition with Roadways
- Social Burden
- Electrification and Modernisation
A metro train is a train that is specifically designed to run in metropolitan cities while local trains are designed to connect the distances within the city and its suburbs areas.
Help in reducing congestion in cities, greater connectivity, safety for women, timely transport
Kolkata first metro, Delhi largest metro network.
- Oldest mode, 2nd largest in the world.
- Easier to maintain than railways and can penetrate deeper.
- Serve as feeders for railways and are more flexible
- Roads classified as – National Highways , State Highways, District Roads and Village Roads
National Highways – maintained by CPWD and NHAI.
National Highway Development Project (NHDP) is being implemented by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).
Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for the North Eastern Region (SARDP-NE) – improvement of road connectivity to the state capitals with district HQ in North Eastern Region
Road Requirement Plan (RRP) for improvement of road connectivity in Left Wing Extremism (LWE) affected areas of 34 Districts in 8 States covering 5477 km length (1126 km NHs & 4351 km State Roads]
- It calls for improvement in efficiency of existing corridors through development of Multimodal Logistics Parks and elimination of choke points.
- It enhances focus on improving connectivity in North East and leveraging synergies with Inland Waterways. ○ North East Economic corridor enhancing connectivity to state capitals and key towns.
○ Multimodal freight movement via 7 Waterway terminals on River Brahmaputra – Dhubri, Silghat, Biswanath Ghat, Neamati, Dibrugarh, Sengajan, Oriyamgh.
- It emphasis on the use of technology & scientific planning for project preparation and asset monitoring. ● It calls for seamless connectivity with neighboring countries:
○ 24 Integrated check posts (ICPs) identified
○ Transit through Bangladesh to improve North East connectivity
○ Integrating Bangladesh – Bhutan – Nepal and Myanmar – Thailand corridors which will make NorthEast hub of East Asia
- Satellite mapping of corridors to identify upgradation requirements
The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) is a national highway network connecting most of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India. It forms a quadrilateral connecting the four major metro cities of India, viz., Delhi (north), Kolkata (east), Mumbai (west) and Chennai (south).
North South and East West Corridors consist of building 7300 kilometers of four/six lane expressways associating Srinagar, Kanyakumari, Kochi, Porbandar and Silchar, at a cost of US$12.317 billion
National Highway Grid
- NHAI has prepared a grid of 27 horizontal and vertical national highway corridors at a distance of every 250 km crisscrossing the country.
- All stretches will be four laned roads with a total length of 36,600 km.
New Highway Numbering system
- For all the national highways from North to South, even numbers are used and it is assigned from East to West in the ascending order. In other words, for high longitudes, lower numbers and for lower longitudes high numbers are assigned. As, NH-2 is located in North Eastern States and NH-68 is located in Rajasthan.
- For all the highways from East to West, odd numbers are assigned. In this case, the highways are named in ascending numbers from East to West. In other words, for high latitudes, lower numbers and for lower latitudes higher numbers are assigned. For example, NH-8 is located in J&K and NH-87 is located in Tamil Nadu.
- Highways which are denoted by three digit numbers are known as subsidiary highways. For Example, 244, 144, 344 are the branches of National Highway number 44. In the subsidiary highway number, if the first digit is odd, then the highway is located from East to West and if the first digit is even, it is located from North to South.
Problems of Roadways
- NH only 2% but carry 40% of the traffic
- Road density is low in India and unevenly distributed
- High cost of maintaining and building new infrastructure.
- Fastest Mode of Transport
- India is now the seventh largest aviation market with 187 million passengers in FY 2017-18 and it is expected to become the third largest by 2022.
- Air transport began in India in 1911.
Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik – RCS
This scheme is a part of the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) and is funded jointly by the GoI and the state governments. The following are its salient features:
- The scheme duration is for 10 years
- Airlines participating in UDAN are selected through a competitive bidding process
- The Central government will provide subsidy to cover Value Gap funding (VGF) for participating airlines, concessional GST on tickets booked using the scheme, codesharing for flights under the policy
- State Governments will extend GST reduction to 1% for 10 years, coordination with oil companies to facilitate refuelling facilities, provide land for airport and ancillary development, trained security personnel, utilities at subsidised rates, 20% of VGF
- Airport operators such as AAI will provide the following concessions:
○ No parking, landing and storage charges at participating airports ○ Nil TNLC (Terminal Navigation Landing Charges)
○ Allow ground handling by the airline selected through the bidding process
○ RNCF (Route Navigation and Facilitation Charges) will be discounted to 42.4% of normal rates by the Airports Authority of India
Challenges of Indian Aviation Industry
- Inadequate Infrastructure ● Financial Health of Airlines ● Air safety and Security
- Absence of Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul infrastructure (mentioned in Budget 2019-2020)
- Stagnant Air cargo traffic
- India has 14,500 km of inland waterways comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks etc.
- In India only 0.15 per cent of domestic surface transport is accounted for by IWT, compared with 68 per cent for road and 30 per cent for rail
- As per the National Waterways Act, 2016, 111 have been declared as National Waterways (NW)
- These waterways pass through 24 states and two union territories, with an approximate total length of 20274 km
- These proposed waterways will pass through nearly 138 river systems, creeks, estuaries and related canal systems of India.
- The first waterway to be declared National was the Allahabad to Haldia stretch of the Ganga – Bhagirathi-Hoogly.
- In 1972, India and Bangladesh signed the Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade (PIWTT).It is an agreement between the two governments for the transportation of goods and keeping their respective waterways navigable, while providing infrastructure facilities
Advantages of Inland Waterways
- 1. Fuel and Energy Efficient: It is fuel-efficient compared to the other modes of transport, rail and road. For example, the Integrated National Waterways Transportation Grid Study states that one litre of fuel will move 24 tons through one kilometre on road, 85 on rail and 105 km on inland water transport. Further, 1 HP can move 150 kg on road, 500 kg on rail and 4000 kg on water.
- 2. Cost of developing waterways is much lower than rail & road. 3. Reduces transportation and transition losses
- 4. Environment Friendly – Least fuel consumption per tonne‐km, Carbon dioxide emission is 50% of trucks 5. Negligible land requirement as compared to rail and road transport
- 6. Reduces pressure on road and rail
- 7. It will provide optimal modal mix by converging river transport with other modes
- 8. Better connectivity: It help create seamless interconnectivity connecting hinterlands along navigable river coasts and coastal routes. Further, riverine routes are likely to play a crucial role in connecting the north-eastern states to the mainland
- 9. Inland Waterways hold huge potential for domestic cargo transport, cruise, tourism and passenger traffic. 10. Development of inland waterways will help in the generation of job opportunities