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Prelims Specific

  • KazInd 2019 – Exercise KAZIND-2019 is the fourth edition of an annual event which is conducted alternatively in Kazakhstan and India. The aim of this exercise is to conduct company level joint training with emphasis on counter terrorism operations in mountainous terrain. During the exercise, aspects of emerging trends of global terrorism and hybrid warfare have also been included.
  • Global Tiger Forum – The Global Tiger Forum (GTF) is the only inter- governmental international body established with members from willing countries to embark on a global campaign to protect the Tiger.
    • Established in 1993
    • It focuses on saving the remaining 5 sub-species of Tigers distributed over 13 Tiger Range countries of the world by  Utilizing co-operative policies, common approaches, technical expertise, scientific modules and other appropriate programmes and controls


10 year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029)

Paper: General Studies 2, General Studies 3

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

Why in News?

  • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS), Ministry of Jal Shakti, GoI launched the 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029), which focus on sustaining the sanitation behavior change that has been achieved under the Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G), ensuring that no one is left behind, and increasing access to solid and liquid waste management.

Highlights of Strategy:

  • The first priority is to sustain the gains of ODF, to prevent slipbacks and continue behaviour change
  • this will entail reaching out to “left-behind” households who have not been covered under the ODF drive
  • The framework, to be in place from 2019 to 2029, will ensure that people sustain their usage of toilets. It will also focus on proper implementation of solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) — plastic waste, organic waste, grey water, and faecal sludge — in rural areas
  • Thus the frameworks marks the shift to ODF plus approach


  • Better hygiene in rural areas -> better outcomes of health programmes, lower malnutrition, shift towards preventive healthcare
  • Shift from Human to environmental approach with ODF plus approach.i.e. Use of momentum created during SBA for better SLWM
  • Sustainable and more inclusive growth and development with reduced regional disparities between urban and rural areas
  • Policy direction in alignment with Sustainable development goals



Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

Why in News?

  • Chinese envoy to india reiterated the principle of “panchsheel” for India-China relations

What is Panchsheel?

  • Referred to as “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence”, the policy stresses on non-interference in others’ internal affairs and respect for each other’s territorial unity, integrity and sovereignty as a set of principles to govern relations between states
  • Their first formal codification in treaty form was in an agreement between China and India in 1954.
  • Five principles under panchsheel are:
    • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty,
    • Mutual non-aggression,
    • Mutual non-interference,
    • Equality and mutual benefit, and
    • Peaceful co-existence