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Climate Action Summit

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Why in News?

Prime Minister of India addressed the Climate Action Summit organized as part of Paris climate agreement commitments by the UN

Paris Climate Agreement

  • Paris Agreement is an international arrangement to fight against climate change. It is the world’s first comprehensive climate agreement. The governments of 195 nations gathered in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015 and discussed a conceivable fresh global agreement on climate change, intended at decreasing global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Aim of Paris agreement
    • Retain the global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level.
    • Pursue efforts to limit the temperature upsurge even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
    • Reinforce the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change
  • Signatory countries have announced their non-binding Intended Nationally Determined contributions (INDC)

India’s INDCs

  • To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 levels
  • To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance, including from Green Climate Fund
  • To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030

Climate Action Summit

  • In order to ensure that the transformative actions in the real economy are as impactful as possible, the following action portfolios are prioritized, which are recognized as having high potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and increased global action on adaptation and resilience
    • Finance: mobilizing public and private sources of finance to drive decarbonization of all priority sectors and advance resilience;
    • Energy Transition: accelerating the shift away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy, as well as making significant gains in energy efficiency;
    • Industry Transition: transforming industries such as Oil and Gas, Steel, Cement, Chemicals and Information Technology;
    • Nature-Based Solutions: Reducing emissions, increasing sink capacity and enhancing resilience within and across forestry, agriculture, oceans and food systems, including through biodiversity conservation, leveraging supply chains and technology;
    • Cities and Local Action: Advancing mitigation and resilience at urban and local levels, with a focus on new commitments on low-emission buildings, mass transport and urban infrastructure; and resilience for the urban poor;
    • Resilience and Adaptation: advancing global efforts to address and manage the impacts and risks of climate change, particularly in those communities and nations most vulnerable.

Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Disaster and disaster management

Why in News?

Prime Minister of India announced a global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), at the UN Climate Action Summit 2019

What is CDRI?

  • It is a partnership of national governments, UN agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks, financing mechanisms, private sector, and knowledge institutions will promote the resilience of new and existing infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks, thereby ensuring sustainable development
  • Developed through consultations with more than 35 countries, CDRI envisions enabling measurable reduction in infrastructure losses from disasters, including extreme climate events
  • Established as a platform for generating and exchanging knowledge, CDRI will conduct country-specific and global activities.
  • It will provide member countries technical support and capacity development, research and knowledge management, and advocacy and partnerships to facilitate and encourage investment in disaster resilient infrastructure systems

 

CHC Farm Machinery and Krishi Kisan App

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: e-technology in the aid of farmers

Why in News?

The government launched 2 apps for farmers – CHC Farm Machinery and Krishi Kisan App

CHC farm Machinery App

  • From this app, farmers can select and order the required machinery at the rates feasible for them from the Custom Hiring Centers located in the radius of 50 Kms
  • Till date more than 40,000 custom hiring service centers have registered on this mobile app for renting over 1,20,000 agricultural machineries & equipments

Krishi Kisan App

  • It will provide farmers the information of best demonstration of high-yielding crops and seeds in their nearby area.
  • Any farmer with high quality of crops can utilise this platform to demonstrate best practices of cultivation to other farmers so that this will help other farmers also to adopt these methods.
  • The App will also help in geo-tagging and geo-fencing of crop and give weather forecast message to farmers.

Custom Hiring Centres

  • Mechanization brings in timeliness and precision to agricultural operations, greater field coverage over a short period, cost-effectiveness, efficiency in use of resources and applied inputs, conservation of available soil moisture under stress conditions and provision of adequate drainage of excess rain and floodwaters
  • Custom hiring centres (CHCs) for farm implements were established in 100 NICRA villages which could successfully empower farmers to tide over the shortage of labour and improve efficiency of agricultural operations
  • A committee of farmers’ nominated by the gram sabha manages the custom hiring centre. The rates for hiring the machines/ implements are decided by the Village Climate Risk Management Committee (VCRMC)
  • This committee also uses the revenue generated from hiring charges for repair and maintenance of the implements and remaining amount goes into the revolving fund

 

Prelims Specific

  • India water week: It is an annual forum where the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India discusses, talks, strategizes with eminent stakeholders through seminars, exhibitions and sessions to build public awareness, to get support to implement key strategies for conservation, preservation and optimum use of available water.
    • The theme of the India Water Week-2019 is ‘Water Cooperation – Coping with 21st Century Challenges’
  • India International Science Festival: It is a celebration to promote Science and Technology and demonstrate how science could lead India towards a developed nation within a short span of time.
    • The aim is to engage the public with science and celebrate the joy of science and show the ways how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide us with the solutions to improve our lives
    • It is organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences in association with Vijnana Bharati (VIBHA)
    • Theme for this year’s festival is RISEN India – Research, Innovation, and Science Empowering the Nation