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Prelims Specific

  • VAHAN database: VAHAN is a highly flexible and comprehensive system that takes care of all the burdensome activities of Vehicle Registration, leaving the Transport Department to deal with more important business issues. The software enables the processes at RTO/DTO/MLO/SDM involving Vehicle Registration, Fitness, Taxes, Permits & Enforcement to get computerized
  • M-parivahan: Provides Transport Service access to citizens through a mobile based application. This app empowers citizens with instant access to various information, services and utilities related to the Transport Sector. Aimed to bring convenience to citizens and transparency in the system


Tropical cyclones

Paper: General Studies 1

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.

Why in News?

  • A cyclonic storm named “HIKAA” has been formed in Arabian Sea


  • A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure
  • Tropical cyclones are such thermal low pressure systems formed due to intense heating of the Sea surface in the tropical oceans
  • Once formed, these cyclones move westwards

Conditions for formation of tropical cyclones

  • Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C,
  • Presence of the Coriolis force enough to create a cyclonic vortex,
  • Small variations in the vertical wind speed,
  • A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level-cyclonic circulation,
  • Upper divergence above the sea level system

In the northern Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones are formed more in the Bay of Bengal than Arabian sea because:

  • High sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal because of smaller and constrained size of basin
  • High evaporation because of low salinity in the Bay of Bengal than Arabian sea
  • Bay of Bengal receives western moving tropical disturbances from West pacific ocean

Thus, the recent upsurge in formation of cyclones in Arabian sea is a testament to the impact of global warming on atmospheric phenomena


Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
Education, Human Resources

Why in News?

  • The government launched UMMID initiative and NIDAN kendras, to tackle inherited genetic diseases of new born babies


  • Unique Methods of Management and treatment of Inherited Disorders (UMMID) is supported by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology
  • This new initiative aims at creating awareness about genetic disorders and establish molecular diagnostics in hospitals so that the benefits of developments in medical genetics could reach patients
  • The UMMID initiative aims
    • to establish NIDAN Kendras to provide counselling, prenatal testing and diagnosis, management, and multidisciplinary care in Government Hospitals wherein the influx of patients is more,
    • to produce skilled clinicians in Human Genetics, and
    • to undertake screening of pregnant women and new born babies for inherited genetic diseases in hospitals at aspirational districts
  • Thus, UMMID is based on the philosophy of “preventive care” and “health for all” as highlighted in the National Health Policy 2017

NIDAN Kendra

  • NIDAN (National Inherited Diseases Administration) Kendras are dedicated diagnostic centres i.e. hospitals with interested doctors, committed administrators and basic infrastructure have been selected and have been funded to establish genetic laboratories
  • The centres selected have medical doctors with expertise in medical genetics

Coastal Regulation Zones

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Why in News?

  • The Supreme Court has warned Kerala over non-compliance of CRZ notifications


  • Coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers, and backwaters were declared as CRZs under coastal zone regulation notification in 1991
  • CRZs have been classified into 4 zones for the purpose of regulation:
    • CRZ-I: includes ecologically sensitive areas, where no construction is allowed except activities for atomic power plants, defense.
    • CRZ-II: includes designated urban areas that are substantially built up. Construction activities are allowed on the landward side only.
    • CRZ-III: includes relatively undisturbed areas, mainly rural areas. No new construction of buildings allowed in this zone except repairing of the existing ones. However, constructions of dwelling units in the plot area lying between 200-500m of the high tide line is allowed.
    • CRZ-IV: includes the water area covered between Low Tide Line and 12 nautical miles seaward. Except for fishing and related activities, all actions impugning on the sea and tidal water will be regulated in this zone
  • The first CRZ notification was issued in 1991 which has been subsequently amended in 2011 and then 2018
  • The 2018 notification is based on recommendations of Shailesh Nayak Committee, and is aimed to make CRZs less restrictive to ensure development of coastal areas

Importance of CRZ

  • Protection of coastal ecology which is an important determinant of marine flora and fauna
  • Protection of interests of coastal communities, particularly fishing communities which depend heavily on marine fauna for livelihood
  • Protection of coastal ecology is also important determinant of disaster vulnerability from atmospheric and oceanic events such as Tropical cyclones, Tsunamis etc.