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                                                                                              Importance of Livestock to the Rural Economy & Central Govt’s vaccination Scheme:

Prelims– Key features of Govt Scheme

Mains– significance of Govt Scheme to develop rural economy

Why in News

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on September 11 asserted that livestock had always been vital for the rural economy in India and stressed that protection of cows could be gauged by the vaccination scheme introduced by the government.

Key Features

Importance of Livestock to the Rural Economy-

  • Citing a scheme run by the Rwandan government to tackle malnutrition and poverty through the distribution of cows to elaborate on the role of cows in the rural economy PM explained that as per Rwanda’s scheme a cow was donated to each household.
  • The first calf produced by the cow is then given to the government, which then donates it to other villagers who don’t have a cow. This works like a chain.
  • PM praised the Rwandan model for creating a network of employment. This also helped ensure that the cow, livestock and milk production become a part of the rural economy.


            National Animal Disease Control Progreamme (NACDP)-

  • The launch of the National Animal Disease Control Programme (NACDP) took place in Mathura.
  • The program aims to control and eradicate the Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis among livestock in the country.
  • More than 600 million cattle in the country are set to be vaccinated in an effort to mitigate the two diseases, Brucellosis and FMD (locally known as muh paka bimari), as part of the Centre’s ₹12,652 crore programmes.

National Artificial Insemination Programme (NAIP)-

  • The PM also launched the National Artificial Insemination Programme and a countrywide workshop in the Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in all the 687 districts of the country on vaccination and disease management, artificial insemination and productivity.

Swachhta hi Seva Programme-

The Swachhta hi Seva Programme was also launched by him with the focus on reducing the usage of Single Use Plastic in the country. The PM appealed to people to get rid their homes, offices and workplaces of single use plastic by October 2, 2019.


                                                                                                                          Deocha Coal Block in West Bengal’s Birbhum:

Prelims– world’s second largest coal block

Mains– Mining Project

Why in News

West Bengal is about to sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the Central Government in a week for the handover of the Coal Block in the Bengal’s Birbhum District.

Key Points

  • Mining project at the world’s second-largest coal block, Deocha-Pachami in West Bengal, will be taken up after environmental concerns are sorted and displaced families resettled.
  • There are about 395 families (40 per cent tribal) in Deocha-Pachami,” who need to be resettled before carrying out mining activities.
  • West Bengal Power Development Corporation Ltd (WBPDCL) has been allotted the block at the south-western part of Birbhum. The centre has also allotted Dewanganj Harinsingha block in the western fringe of the district.
  • Banerjee said the coal block would require investments to the tune of Rs 12,000-15,000 crore over a
    period of time, and has the potential to generate nearly one lakh employment opportunities. The state will be required to acquire about 9,000 acres acres out of the project area of 11,222.50 acres. Vested land is estimated to be around 2,000 acres.
  • Five per cent of the project area is forest land needing forest clearance.
  • This is a big project that can supply coal for the next 100 years
  • The block has an estimated coal reserve of 2.1 billion tonnes.

    Anti-tank Guided Missile successfully launched by DRDO:

Prelims– Key features ofATGM and its uses

Mains– Importance of such missiles in Indian Army

Why in News

In a major boost for the Indian Army, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on Wednesday successfully flight-tested indigenously-developed Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) system.

Key Features-

  • It is a low weight, fire-and-forget Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (MPATGM).
  • This is the third successful test firing of the missile system which is being developed for Indian Army’s need for 3rd generation ATGMs.
  • The test fire was conducted in the ranges of Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh.


Prelims– what are E-Cigarettes

Mains– its effects on health

Why in News

The Union Cabinet is likely to approve an ordinance prohibiting the manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country. The law would make production, manufacture, import, export, transport, sale, distribution or advertisements of e-cigarettes a cognizable offence.

Key Points

  • An electronic cigarette is a battery-operated device that emits doses of vaporized nicotine, or non-nicotine solutions, for the user to inhale. It aims to provide a similar sensation to inhaling tobacco smoke, without the smoke.
  • Also known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, electronic nicotine delivery systems, vaporizer cigarettes, and vape pens, they are marketed as a way to stop or cut down on smoking.
  • E-cigarettes have been taken up by millions around the world since they first appeared on the Chinese market in 2004.

Fast facts on e-cigarettes:

  • E-cigarettes aim to resemble cigarettes, but without burning tobacco.
  • They are sold as aids to reduce or quit smoking, and some people find them helpful for this.
  • However, research shows that they may have a negative impact on health.

Health authorities are trying to tighten up regulations to discourage young people from using e-cigarettes.

How they work

Most e-cigarettes have:

  • a mouthpiece, or cartridge
  • a heating element
  • a rechargeable battery
  • electronic circuits

As the user sucks on the mouthpiece, a sensor activates a heating element that vaporizes a flavored, liquid solution held in the mouthpiece. The person then “vapes,” or inhales, the aerosol solution.

The battery powers the heating element. This is normally a rechargeable, lithium-ion battery.

The sensor activates the heater when the user sucks on the device. An LED may show when it is activated.

The solution, also known as e-liquid or e-juice, is made by extracting nicotine from tobacco and mixing it with a base, usually propylene glycol, and flavoring. Propylene glycol is used in inhalers, for example, for asthma. The CDC add that vaping is not suitable:

  • for young people
  • for those who have never smoked before
  • during pregnancy


While e-cigarettes may help some people quit, there is growing evidence that vaping may be harmful in some cases, and more harmful than avoiding smoking altogether.Here are 10 reasons why the authorities are concerned:

  1. Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is addictive and triggers changes in the adolescent brain. It is hazardous during pregnancy as it can affect fetal development.
  2. The aerosol contains solvents, flavorings, and toxicants, which the Surgeon General describes as either “harmful” or “potentially harmful.”
  3. E-cigarettes expose the lungs to different substances. One of these is dicetyl, which can cause “popcorn lung,” a severe and irreversible lung disease.
  4. Potentially fatal poisoning has resulted from accidentally swallowing and from inhaling c-cigarette liquid.
  5. People who seek to quit smoking will stop using conventional and medically monitored methods of doing so.
  6. Those who use or who have used e-cigarettes are less likelyTrusted Source to stop smoking altogether.
  7. Teens who use e-cigarette products are more likely to start using regular tobacco as well.
  8. Continued use of nicotine can make other drugs, such as cocaine, more pleasurable.
  9. The flavorings, the marketing, and the concept that it is not harmful all tempt teenagers to start vaping. There is concern that this increases the chance that they will smoke conventional cigarettes later.
  10. Second-hand smoking is not eliminated by vaping, as vaping releases carcinogenic emissions.




  • Anti-tobacco health experts are calling it a move in the right direction but the tobacco industry and its allies state that if enforced, this would be a “draconian law hitting at the livelihood of many.”
  • As per the draft bill, the offence will be punishable with jail up to one year or fine up to ₹1 lakh or both for first-time offenders, and jail of up to three years and fine up to ₹5 lakh for repeat offenders. Storage of e-cigarettes shall also be punishable with imprisonment up to six months or fine up to ₹50,000 or both.





National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)

Paper: General Studies 3 

Topic: Economics of animal-rearing

Why in News?

  • The government launched National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP) for eradicating the foot and mouth disease and brucellosis in livestock on September 11


  • The programme aims to control FMD and brucellosis by 2025 and eradicate these by 2030
  • The project, which will cost ₹12,652 crores for a period of five years till 2024, will be funded entirely by the government
  • It aims at vaccinating over 500 million livestock including cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs against the FMD
  • It also aims at vaccinating 36 million female bovine calves annually in its fight against the brucellosis disease

Animal Husbandry sector is one of the major pillars of the strategy for doubling farmer’s income by 2022. The disease of FMD and brucellosis are common among livestock such as- cow, buffaloes, bulls, pigs, sheep and goats. Both diseases have a direct negative impact on trade of milk and other livestock products threatening animal rearing economy as:

  1. If a cow or buffalo gets infected with FMD, the milk loss is up to 100% which could last for 4-6 months.
  2. In case of Brucellosis, the milk output reduces by 30% during the entire life cycle of animal and also causes infertility among animals.
  3. Also, the infection of brucellosis can also be transmitted to farm workers and livestock owners

Artificial Insemination

Paper: General Studies 3 

Topic: Economics of animal-rearing

Why in News?

  • The government launched Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programmes for improving livestock breed quality
  • Countrywide workshops in Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in all the 687 districts of the country on the topic of vaccination and disease management, Artificial insemination and productivity, etc. will be conducted

Artificial Insemination:

  • Artificial insemination is the technique in which semen with living sperm is collected from the male and introduced into female reproductive tract at proper time with the help of instruments
  • In this process, the semen is inseminated into the female by placing a portion of it either in a collected or diluted form into the cervix or uterus by mechanical methods at the proper time and under most hygienic conditions
  • It is a powerful tool mostly employed for livestock improvement. In artificial insemination, the germplasm of the bulls of superior quality can be effectively utilized with the least regard for their location in faraway places. By adoption of artificial insemination, there would be considerable reduction in both genetic and non-genetic diseases in the farm stock

Sixth Schedule

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Indian constitution – significant provisions

Why in News?

  • NCST panel recommends Ladakh to be considered as a “tribal area” under sixth schedule of the constitution

Sixth Schedule

  • The Constitution, under Sixth Schedule, contains special provisions for the administration of tribal areas in the four north-eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The rationality behind the special arrangements in respect of only these four states lies in the following:
    • The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram have not assimilated much the life and ways of the other people in these state
    • The tribal people in other parts of India have more or less adopted the culture of the majority of the people in whose midst they live
    • The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram, on the other hand, still have their roots in their own culture, customs and civilizationThese areas are, therefore, treated differently by the Constitution and a sizeable amount of autonomy has been given to these people for self-government

This autonomy is exercised through formation of autonomous district councils and regional councils having extensive powers just as law making, taxation, executive and judicial

NCST (National Commission for Scheduled Tribes)

  • It was bifurcated from former National Commission for SCs and STs by 89th constitutional amendment Act 2003, as it was realized that geographically and culturally, the STs are different from the SCs and their problems are also different from those of SCs
  • It consists of a chairperson, vice-chairperson and three other members
  • Major functions include:
    • To investigate and monitor all matters relating to the constitutional and other legal safeguards for the STs and to evaluate their working;
    • To inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the STs;
    • To participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the STs and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union or a state;
    • To present to the President, annually and at such other times as it may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards;
    • To make recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or a state for the effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic development of the STs; and
    • To discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the STs as the President may specify

Prelims Specific

  • Drought Toolbox – launched during COP 14
    • Requested in The COP 13 as part of the Drought Initiative, the toolbox is designed to provide drought stakeholders with easy access to tools, case studies and other resources to support the design of National Drought Policy Plan with the aim to boost the resilience of people and ecosystems to drought
    • The drought toolbox collates a large number of tools organized in 3 modules.
      • Drought Monitoring and Early Warning.
      • Drought Vulnerability and Risk Assessment.
      • Drought Risk Mitigation Measures.
  • 2 new Ginger species discovered in Nagaland
    • Scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) have discovered two new species of Zingiber, commonly referred to as ginger, from Nagaland
      • Zingiber perenense has been discovered from the Peren district
      • Zingiber dimapurense was found in the Dimapur district
      • The genus Zingiber has 141 species distributed throughout Asia, Australia and the South Pacific, with its centre of diversity in Southeast Asia.
      • More than 20 species have been found in northeastern India
  • ANGAN – Augmenting Nature by Green Affordable New-habitat
    • An international conference organised by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power, Government of India in collaboration with GIZ under the Indo German Technical Cooperation
    • It is focussed on Energy Efficiency in Building Sector