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Measles, Rubella

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

Why in News?

  • Member countries of the WHO South-Asia Region have resolved to eliminate highly infectious childhood killer diseases measles and rubella by 2023
  • The 72nd session of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia was held in Delhi

Measles, Rubella

  • Measles and Rubella are highly contagious viral diseases that are spread by contact with an infected person through coughing and sneezing.
  • Infection with Measles is followed by high fever, rash that spreads over the body, cough, running nose and red watery eyes.
  • Measles weakens the immune system of the body. Hence infection with Measles often leads to serious complications that include blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhoea and severe respiratory infections such as pneumonia.
  • Most measles-related deaths are caused by complications associated with the disease.
  • One-third of all measles-related deaths worldwide occur in India.
  • Rubella is a mild viral infection that occurs most often in children and young adults.
  • Infection with Rubella is followed by rash and low fever. It may be associated with swelling of lymph node and joint pain.
  • Rubella infection during pregnancy can cause abortion, stillbirth and may lead to multiple birth defects in the new born; like blindness, deafness, heart defects; known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)

Measles and Rubella in India

  • India accounts for around one third of all children born worldwide with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)
  • Every year in India nearly 2.7 million children get measles. Those who survive, suffer from serious complications including diarrhoea, pneumonia and malnutrition
  • Rubella transmission is also highly prevalent across India. Every year over 40,000 children are born with such birth defects caused by Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Steps taken

  • India’s measles and rubella vaccination campaign in the age group of 9 months to less than 15 years in a phased manner across the nation. The campaign aims to cover approximately 41 crore children
  • Measles and Rubella vaccines included in Mission Indradhanush

Eat Right India Movement

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources; Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger

Why in News?

  • The Health Minister kick-started POSHAN Maah 2019 with a year-long social and mass media campaign on the Eat Right India movement
  • The campaign ‘Eat Right India’ with its new logo and tagline ‘Sahi Bhojan. Behtar Jeevan’ were released

What is Eat Right India Movement?

  • The Eat Right India Movement of FSSAI is the new healthy eating approach which places citizens at the centre of a Health Revolution through food and fitness
  • This movement is aligned with the Government’s flagship public health programmes such as POSHAN Abhiyaan, Ayushman Bharat Yojana and Swachh Bharat Mission
  • According to India State-level Disease Burden Trends report, while life expectancy has gone up, more Indians were dying of non-communicable diseases such as ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), stroke, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease etc.
  • The Eat Right Movement was launched to usher in a ‘new food culture’ by nudging businesses and consumers to cut down on salt, sugar and trans-fat in their food
  • The FSSAI has also put in place robust regulatory measures under three pillars:
    • Eat safe
    • Eat Healthy
    • Eat sustainably


Indo-Russia Relations

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests; India and its Neighborhood- Relations

Why in News?

  • The Prime Minister of India was on a two day visit to Russia for Indo-Russia Annual Summit and participating as chief guest in “Eastern Economic Forum”
  • India and Russia have multidimensional International Relations spanning from sectors like economy, energy, defense, counter terrorism, to space collaboration

Major Highlights of the Visit

  • Reiteration of increasing people to people and business to business cooperation and collaboration
  • Improved Defense collaboration through:
    • Manufacturing of spare parts of Russian equipment by Joint Ventures of both the countries in India
    • Co-manufacturing of AK 203 rifles replacing the Indian INSAS to be done through a joint venture between Russia and India, thus taking defense relations outside the realm of traditional buyer-seller relations
    • Russia has offered India for joint design and development of conventional submarines through Inter-Governmental Agreement, with full access to technology and intellectual property rights
  • In space collaboration, Russia will aid India in various major verticals of ISRO’s Gaganyaan mission, including training of Indian astronauts
  • In Economic sphere:
    • Decisions to step up industrial cooperation and create new technological and investment partnership, especially in advanced high-tech areas, with an aim to increase bilateral trade to $30 billion by 2025
    • 50 G2G and B2B documents signed during PM Modi’s Russia visit
    • India has extended $1 billion credit facility for Russia’s Far Eastern Region
    • An MoU between the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation on bilateral cooperation in the road transport and road industry
    • An MoU for development of Chennai-Vladivostok Link for improving connectivity and trade
    • Russia to supply coking coal to India for industrial needs
  • In Energy sector:
    • Both sides have decided to widen their energy partnership including five year roadmap for hydro-carbon sector comprising joint development of oil and gas fields in Russia and India, including offshore fields
    • Russia to help in developing more than 20 Nuclear power Plants in India
  • In strategic Sphere,
    • India and Russia agreed on the fact that Indian efforts in solving Kashmir Problem are “internal matter” of India
    • India and Russia are important partners’ for each other’s efforts in Indo-Pacific Region
    • Russia has responded well to India’s aspirations to become an important stakeholder in Arctic region development, which would also support India’s energy needs
  • The PM of India unveiled “Act Far East Policy” for further strengthening Indo-Russia relations


Prelims Specific

  • Exercise TSENTR 2019 – part of the annual series of large scale exercises that form part of the Russian Armed Forces’ annual training cycle. The series rotates through the four main Russian operational strategic commands. Russia holds a major military exercise every year at one of it’s four military Commands i.e Vostok (East), Zapad (West), TSENTR (Centre) and Kavkas (South).
    • These annual exercises have slowly began taking an international character, with Belarus participating in ZAPAD-2017 and China and Mongolia participating in VOSTOK-2018. This year, invitations for participation have been extended to nine other countries
    • This year’s Exercise TSENTR 2019 will be conducted by Central Military Commission of Russia. Apart from host Russia, military contingents from China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan will also take part in this mega event