For online IAS classes

For online IAS classes, Click Here, Click here.

CAG has a great role in developing Time bound and outcome based system of working in the country: PM


  • He is the head of the Indian audit & account department and chief Guardian of Public purse.
  • It is the institution through which the accountability of the government and other public authorities (all those who spend public funds) to Parliament and State Legislatures and through them to the people is ensured.
  • Shri Rajiv Mehrishi is the incumbent CAG of India.
Constitutional Provisions


  • Article 148broadly deals with the CAG appointment, oath and conditions of service.
  • Article 149deals with Duties and Powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
  • Article 150says that the accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as the President may, on the advice of the CAG, prescribe.
  • Article 151says that the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Union shall be submitted to the president, who shall cause them to be laid before each House of Parliament.
  • Article 279 –Calculation of “net proceeds” is ascertained and certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, whose certificate is final.
  • Third Schedule –Section IV of the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India prescribes the form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India at the time of assumption of office.
  • According to Sixth Schedulethe accounts of the District Council or Regional Council should be kept in such form as CAG, with the approval of the President, prescribe. In addition these bodies account are audited in such manner as CAG may think fit, and the reports relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor who shall cause them to be laid before the Council.
Independence of CAG


  • There are several provisions in the Constitution for safeguarding the independence of CAG.
  • CAG is appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and provided with tenure of 6 years or 65 years of age, whichever is earlier.
  • CAG can be removed by the President only in accordance with the procedure mentioned in the Constitution that is the manner same as removal of a Supreme Court Judge.
  • He is ineligible to hold any office, either under the Government of India or of any state, once he retires/ resigns as a CAG.
  • His salary and other service conditions cannot be varied to his disadvantage after appointment.
  • His administrative powers and the conditions of service of persons serving in the Indian Audit and Accounts Departmentare prescribed by the President only after consulting him.
  • The administrative expenses of the office of CAG, including all salaries, allowances and pensions are charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India that is not subject to vote.
Functions and Power of CAG


  • CAG derives its audit mandate from different sources like–
    • Constitution (Articles 148 to 151)
    • The Comptroller and Auditor General’s (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act, 1971
    • Important Judgments
    • Instructions of Government of India
    • Regulations on Audit & Accounts-2007
  • CAG audits the accounts related to all expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India, Consolidated Fund of each state and UT’s having a legislative assembly.
  • He audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as the Contingency Fund and Public Account of each state.
  • He audits all trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and other subsidiary accounts kept by any department of the Central Government and the state governments.
  • He audits the receipts and expenditure of all bodies and authorities substantially financed from the Central or State revenues; government companies; other corporations and bodies, when so required by related laws.
  • He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor e.g. Local bodies.
  • He advises the President with regard to prescription of the form in which the accounts of the Centre and States shall be kept.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to the President, who shall, in turn, place them before both the houses of Parliament.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of a State to the Governor, who shall, in turn, place them before the state legislature.
  • CAG also acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.

Union Minister for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Shri Giriraj Singh inaugurates celebrations of World Fisheries Day, 2019


he ‘fisheries and aquaculture sector‘ is recognized as the sunshine sector in Indian agriculture. It stimulates the growth of the number of subsidiary industries and is the source of livelihood for a large section of the economically backward population, especially fishermen, of the country. It helps in increasing food supply, generating adequate employment opportunities and raising the nutritional level. It has a huge export potential and is a big source of foreign exchange earnings for the country.

  • Fisheries are the primary source of livelihood for several communities.In order to meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, global fish production should touch 196 million tonnes by 2025 — it currently stands at 171 million tonnes.
  • A concentrated effort by an independent department could help the government achieve its objective of doubling farmers’ income, provided its policies to address the challenge of sustainability.
  • India is the world’s second-largest fish producer with exports worth more than Rs 47,000 crore.
  • Fisheries are the country’s single-largest agriculture export, with a growth rate of 6-10 % in the past five years.
  • Its significance is underscored by the fact that the growth rate of the farm sector in the same period is around 2.5%.
  • India has a marine fisher population of 3.5 million; 10.5 million people are engaged in inland fishery and fish farming.


  • India’s fisheries sector faces the challenge of sustainability.The Food and Agriculture Organisation’s State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture reports note that nearly 90% of the marine fish stocks have either been fully-exploited, or over-fished or depleted to an extent that recovery may not be biologically possible.
  • The productivity is low— in terms of per fisher, per boat and per farm. In Norway, a fisherman/farmer catches/produces 250 kg per day while the Indian average is four to five kg.
  • Marine capture fishery comprises largely of small fishermen who operate traditional boats — either non-motorised vessels or boats with a basic outboard motor. These vessels cannot operate beyond nearshore waters.
  • High-value species such as tuna cannot be caught by fishermen who use these vessels.
  • The fisheries sector is in its nascent stage; the fiscal and policy support not well developed
Way Forward


  • Harnessing the resources related to the fisheries sectorwill bring immense benefits to fishing communities.
  • The new National Policy on Marine Fisheriestalks of introducing deep-sea fishing vessels and assisting fishing communities to convert their vessels and gears for the waters beyond.
  • The policy envisages intensive fish farmingthrough increased stocking of seed, better feed quality and diversification of species. Innovative practices such as recirculatory aquaculture system aim to realize the goal of more crop per drop. As a result, the productivity of freshwater fish farms has gone up.
  • More area should be brought under fish farming.The government has invested in hatcheries to meet the ever-increasing demand for good quality fish seed. The expansion of aquaculture can increase this demand exponentially. Future policies must prioritize seed production in order to attain self-sufficiency in the sector.
  • The introduction of cage culture in reservoirs and other open water bodies can also increase the output.This new practice gives freedom to fishermen from the risk of traversing dangerous rivers and restricted reservoirs.
  • Government should fill the large infrastructure gaps in fisheries sectorin the country through developing infrastructure projects such as fishing harbours/ fish landing centres, fish seed farms, fish feed mills/plants, setting up of disease diagnostic and aquatic quarantine facilities, creation of cold chain infrastructure facilities such as ice plants, cold storage, fish transport facilities, fish processing units, fish markets, etc.
  • Regular stocking of reservoirs and other water bodies can be done to increase in fish catch. Open sea cage culture is at a pilot stage and the initial trials have given promising results. This may prove another game changer.
  • There should be an increased investment for the Blue Revolution to supplement the fisheries sector.
  • The new fisheries department is expected to give undivided attention to creating and strengthening infrastructure facilities in marine and inland fisheries and give a boost to aquaculture and post-harvest activities.
  • Comprehensive fisheries education and research should be promoted.
  • The country should be producing more than 15 million tonnes of fish by the end of 2019. It should be on its way to becoming a hub for sustainable fish production.
  • Blue revolution
  • The Blue Revolution, launched by the central government, focuses on creating an enabling environment for integrated and holistic development and management of fisheries for the socio-economic development of the fishers and fish farmers.


Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0


  • The Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0 will aim to cover the low immunisation pockets.
  • It will carry out massive immunisation program in 271 districts across the nation and 652 blocks located in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • The Mission Indradhanush has increased India’s immunisation coverage significantly to 87% from 67% in 2014.
  • However,official data on India’s immunisation coverage is still 62% given as the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16).
About Mission Indradhanush:


  • Mission Indradhanush is a vaccination programme that was launched in the year 2014.
  • It aimed to increase full immunization coverage to cover children up to 2 years and pregnant women.
  • It represents the seven vaccines that were then included in the Universal Immunisation Programme against seven diseases: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles.
  • The number has since risen to 12 with the inclusion of vaccines against measles rubella, rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type-B and polio.
  • In a select few states and districts, vaccines are also provided against Japanese Encephalitis and pneumococcus.
About Intensified Mission Indradhanush:


  • The Intensified Mission Indradhanush was launched in October 2017.
  • It has aimed to reach each and every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunization programme.
  • The special drive has focussed in selected districts and cities to ensure full immunization to more than 90% by December 2018.
  • Further,Special attention was also given to unserved/low coverage pockets in sub-centre and urban slums with migratory population.The focus was also on the urban settlements and cities identified under National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
  • The Vaccine which were supplied were also tracked using the Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network and cold chain tracking programme, and distributed using the alternate vaccine delivery mechanism.


Samagra Shiksha


Samagra Shiksha is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12. The scheme has been prepared with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes. It subsumes the three Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).



The major objectives of the Scheme are

  • Provision of quality education and enhancing learning outcomes of students;
  • Bridging Social and Gender Gaps in School Education;
  • Ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels of school education;
  • Ensuring minimum standards in schooling provisions;
  • Promoting Vocationalisation of education;
  • Support States in implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009; and
  • Strengthening and up-gradation of SCERTs/State Institutes of Education and DIET as a nodal agencies for teacher training.


 Udyog Aadhar Portal 


UAM is a one-page registration form which constitutes a self-declaration format under which the MSME will self-certify its existence, bank account details, promoter/owner’s Aadhaar details and other minimum information required. There shall be no fee for filing the Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum. On submission of the form, Udyog Aadhaar Acknowledgement shall be generated and mailed to the email address provided in the Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum which shall contain unique Udyog Aadhaar Number  (UAN).

Hybrid Annuity Model for National Highway


  • n India, the new HAM is a mix of BOT Annuity and EPC models.
  • As per the design, the government will contribute to 40% of the project cost in the first five years through annual payments (annuity).
  • The remaining payment will be made on the basis of the assets created and the performance of the developer.
  • Here, hybrid annuity means the first 40% payment is made as fixed amount in five equal instalments whereas the remaining 60% is paid as variable annuity amount after the completion of the project depending upon the value of assets created.
  • As the government pays only 40%, during the construction stage, the developer should find money for the remaining amount. Here, he has to raise the remaining 60% in the form of equity or loans.
  • The private developer will recover his investment from the government by receiving annuity payments over a period of 15 years.
  • The government also offers 80 per cent of prior land acquisition and forest clearance in such projects to the developers.
  • There is no toll right for the developer.
  • Under HAM, Revenue collection would be the responsibility of the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).
Advantage of HAM


  • Advantage of HAM is that it gives enough liquidity to the developer and the financial risk is shared by the government.
  • While the private partner continues to bear the construction and maintenance risks as in the case of BOT (toll) model, he is required only to partly bear the financing risk.
  • Government’s policy is that the HAM will be used in stalled projects where other models are not applicable.



POSHAN Abhiyaan



  • POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) was launched by the Ministry of Women and Child Development on March 8, 2018.
  • The Abhiyaan targets to reduce stunting, undernutrition, anemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • The target of the mission is to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 38.4% to 25% by 2022.
    POSHAN Abhiyaan aims to ensure service delivery and interventions by use of technology, behavioural change through convergence and lays-down specific targets to be achieved across different monitoring parameters.
  • Under the Abhiyaan, Swasth Bharat Preraks will be deployed one in each district for coordinating with district officials and enabling fast and efficient execution of the Abhiyaan across the country. Swasth Bharat Preraks would function as catalyst for fast tracking the implementation of the Abhiyaan.