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Progress of IRNSS


IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland. Simply put, the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is similar to the GPS (global positioning system) of the US, Glonass of Russia and Galileo of Europe as well as China’s Beidou. It consists of a constellation of seven satellites.




  1. It is a constellation of total 7 satellite launched in space and a ground facility on land to receive signals from space satellites. 3 of its satellite Located in Geostationary orbit and 4 are inclined to geosynchronous orbit. However full NAVIC system has 9 satellite, 2 on ground in standby mode.
  2. It covers whole India and region surrounding it up to 1500 km.
  3. It provide accuracy up to 20m as claimed by ISRO.
  4. Its apogee(farthest point) is 20,657km and Perigee is 284 km
  5. The satellite weighs average 1330 kg approx. and each have solar panels to generate 1400wt.
  6. A master control facility is set up on land to receive signals from these satellites.


What areas will it cover?


  1. Primary Service Area: To provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area.
  2. Extended Service Area: It lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30 deg South to 50 deg North, Longitude 30 deg East to 130 deg East.


What all services are provided?


IRNSS would provide two types of services, namely

  1. Standard Positioning Services available to all users and
  2. Restricted Services provided to authorised users. (Encrypted)




  1. India became one of the 5 countries having their own navigation system like GPS of USA, GLONASS of Russia, Galileo of Europe and BeiDu of China. So India dependence on other countries for navigation purposes reduces.
  2. It give real time information for 2 services i.e standard positioning service open for civilian use and Restricted service which may be encrypted for authorised user like for military. Currently we uses GPS system of USA for navigation.
  3. It will help to mitigate the disaster effects by providing information of disaster timing, safe location and also help the disaster relief management to make earlier plans and save the lives of people in India as well as up to 1500 km around it.
  4. It will help the mariners for far navigation and fisherman for get information about the valuable fisheries location and any disturbance in Sea.
  5. It will help to make friendly relations with others countries by providing real time information during any calamity or disaster for mitigate its after effect and for making early plans


Applications of IRNSS:


  • Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Navigation.
  • Disaster Management.
  • Vehicle tracking and fleet management.
  • Integration with mobile phones.
  • Precise Timing.
  • Mapping and Geodetic data capture.
  • Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travelers.
  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers.

Udan 4.0 to Offer Priority Routes Connecting Bilaspur and Ambikapur Airports in Chhattisgarh

Facilities for New Start-Ups


Startup India Initiative was launched on 16th January 2016. The Startup India Action Plan with 19 Action Points intends to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and startups in the country that will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Action Plan is divided across the following areas:

      1. Simplification and Handholding
      2. Funding Support and Incentives
      3. Industry- Academia Partnership and Incubation

The incentives being provided to startups under Startup India initiative to overcome their initial hurdles are given below:


  1. Self-Certification under 6 Labour Laws & 3 Environmental Laws
  2. Relaxations in Public Procurement Norms
  3. Faster exit under the Bankruptcy Code
  4. Rebates on Patent & Trademark filing fees, support from facilitators and expedited examination of Patent application
  5. Income Tax exemption under Section 80 IAC of Income Tax Act
  6. Exemption from Income Tax on investments received above fair market value under clause (ii) of the proviso to clause (viib) of sub-section (2) of section 56 of the Income Tax Act
  7. Funding support under the Fund of Funds for startups
  8. Guidance and facilitation support from Startup India Hub



  • It is a Central Sector Scheme
  • It will be 100% funded by Central Government to fill up gaps in creation of infrastructure in specified sectors in  North east till March, 2020.
  • The scheme will broadly cover creation of infrastructure under following sectors
    1. Physical infrastructure relating to water supply, power, connectivity and specially the projects promoting tourism.
    2. Infrastructure of social sectors of education and health.
  • The assets to be created under NESIDS will not only strengthen education and health care facilities in northeast region but will also encourage tourism thereby employment opportunities for local youth.
  • The scheme will act as catalyst in overall development of north east region in the years to come.

Swachh Survekshan Grameen Awards 2019


  • Top 3 States– 1) Tamil Nadu, 2) Haryana, 3) Gujarat
  • Top 3 Districts– 1) Peddapalli, Telangana, 2) Faridabad, Haryana, 3) Rewari, Haryana
  • State with maximum citizen participation – 1) Uttar Pradesh

FASTag Project


The government has already announced that FASTags will be mandatory for all vehicles at all National Highways from December 1.


Features of the scheme- One Nation One FASTag:
  1. The scheme will be implemented from December 1, 2019, and can be availed upon activation by new cars having Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags on national and state highways throughout the country.
  2. The plan aims to integrate the collection of toll digitally and ensure seamless mobility of vehicles across India.
  3. The payment method is a part of the National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) programme.The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) collects the payments.


What is ‘FASTag’? How they operate?
  1. Stickers affixed to the windscreen of vehicles.
  2. Use RFID technology to enable digital, contactless payment of tolls without having to stop at toll gates.
  3. The tags are linked to bank accounts and other payment methods.
  4. Sensors are placed on toll barriers, and the barriers open for vehicles having valid FASTags.
  5. A FASTag is valid for five years and needs to be recharged only as per requirement.

Rashtriya Rail Sanrakshan Kosh


  • The Railways had asked for ‘Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh’ to be set up based on the recommendations of a high-level safety review committee under former chairman Atomic Energy Commission Dr. Anil Kakodkar.
  • The Committee, which submitted its report in 2012, had projected an investment requirement of Rs. 1 lakh crore on safety over five years. The Centre has so far fully implemented 22 out of 87 partially or fully accepted recommendations made by the panel.
  • The Finance Ministry has agreed to contribute partially to a new dedicated railway safety fund in the upcoming Budget to be presented on February 1. Train derailments have increased to a six-year high of 74 till January 23 this year compared to 65 in 2015-16 and this may prompt the Railways to bring back a cess on railway tickets to fund safety efforts.
  • The dedicated rail safety fund is proposed to be utilised for track improvement, bridge rehabilitation work, rolling stock replacement, human resource development, improved inspection system and safety work at level-crossings, among other things.
  • The Railway Ministry had requested the Finance Ministry to create a ‘non-lapsable’ safety fund named ‘Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh’ over five years.
  • However, the Finance Ministry is likely to grant a fresh infusion of only Rs. 5,000 crore in the upcoming financial year out of the initial proposed corpus of Rs. 20,000 crore.