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Indian Navy – Indonesian Navy Bilateral Maritime Exercise ‘Samudra Shakti Progresses in the Bay of Bengal


INS Kamorta, an Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette is jointly exercising with Indonesian Warship KRI Usman Harun, a multi-role Corvette in the Bay of Bengal as part of the ongoing  Indian Navy – Indonesian Navy Bilateral Exercise ‘Samudra Shakti’ from 06 Nov to 07 Nov 19. The joint exercises include manoeuvres, Surface Warfare exercises, Air Defence exercises, Weapon firing drills, Helicopter Operations and Boarding Operations.


FM chairs 21st Meeting of the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC)


  • The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) was constituted in December, 2010. The FSDC was set up to strengthen and institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination and promoting financial sector development.
  • An apex-level FSDC is not a statutory body.
  • Composition:

The Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister and its members are Governor, Reserve Bank of India; Finance Secretary and/or Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs; Secretary, Department of Financial Services; Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance; Chairman, Securities and Exchange Board of India; Chairman, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority and Chairman, Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority. It also includes the chairman of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board (IBBI).

  • What it does?

The Council deals, inter-alia, with issues relating to financial stability, financial sector development, inter–regulatory coordination, financial literacy, financial inclusion and macro prudential supervision of the economy including the functioning of large financial conglomerates. No funds are separately allocated to the Council for undertaking its activities.


M/o Personnel to organise conferences in newly created UTs of J&K and Ladakh: Dr Jitendra Singh


    • This is the first timethat a state of Indian Union has been divided into UTs.
    • Kargil and Leh districts form Ladakh, while the rest of the region constitutes the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Now, India has 9 UTs and 28 states.

Current Status

  • The two new UTs, Ladakh and J&K, officially came into existence on the144th birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (31st October 2019), who is credited for the merger of over 560 princely states into the Union of India.
    • With this, President’s rule imposed in undivided Jammu and Kashmir in June 2018 stands revoked.
    • The flag and constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, as well as the Ranbir Penal Code (RPC), cease to exist, with the Indian Penal Code (IPC) now extending to both UTs.
  • The Union Territory of J&K will have a 114-member elected Assembly and a Chief Minister whereas the Union territory of Ladakh will be controlled directly by the L-G (i.e. without an Assembly).

Administration of UTs

  • Articles 239 to 241 in Part VIIIof the Constitution deal with the union territories.
  • Every union territory is administered by the Presidentacting through an administrator appointed by him.
    • The President can specify the designation of an administrator; it may be Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administrator.
  • The Parliament can make laws on any subject of the three lists(i.e. Union, State and Concurrent) for the union territories.

Principal Secretary to PM holds a high level meeting on Cyclone ‘Bulbul’ with the States of Odisha, West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  • The meeting reviewed the situation arising due to movement of  Cyclone ‘Bulbul’ in the last few hours.Director General, India Meteorological Department gave the detailed forecast on cyclone Bulbul; its projected track and accompanying wind speed and rainfall in the sea and along the coasts of Odisha and West Bengal.  He informed that coastal Odisha is likely to witness wind speed of 70-80 kmph gusting upto 90 kmph on 8th November accompanied by heavy to very heavy rain. Similar situation is likely to prevail in coastal West Bengal on 9th  Further sea conditions will be very rough and advised fishing operation to be completely suspended.

Different Cyclonic Alerts

  • Yellow:Be Updated
  • Orange: Be prepared
  • Red:Take action
  • Green:No warning

 Arabian Sea Cyclones

  • Cyclonic activity is comparatively less intense in the Arabian sea, as compared to the Bay of Bengal, where high-intensity severe cyclones originate frequently.
  • In the last 120 years, just about 14% of all cyclonic storms, and 23% of severe cyclones, around India have occurred in the Arabian Sea.
  • Arabian Sea cyclones are also relatively weak compared to those emerging in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Gujarat coastline, where most of the cyclones emerging in the Arabian Sea are headed, is not very densely populated, ensures that the damage potential of the cyclones on the western coast is comparatively low.

 Why is the Bay of Bengal More Prone to Cyclones?

  • Temperature difference:The low-pressure system of cyclone need a continuous supply of heat energy and as the Bay of Bengal is warmer than the Arabian sea, it is able to provide the heat energy needed to sustain the low-pressure system.
  • Sea surface temperatures and humidity: both directly correlate with chances of cyclone formation.
    • The Bay of Bengal receiveshigher rainfall and constant inflow of fresh water from the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
    • This means that the Bay’s surface water keeps getting refreshed, making it impossible for thewarm water to mix with the cooler water below, making it ideal for depression.
    • On the other hand, the Arabian Sea receives stronger winds that help dissipate the heat, and the lack of constant fresh water supply helps the warm water mix with the cool water, reducing the temperature.
  • Absence of large landmass between the Pacific and the Bay, allows cyclonic winds to easily move into the Bay of Bengal.
  • Cyclones from Pacific ocean:low-pressure system originating from the Pacific ocean also travel towards the left to the Bay of Bengal.