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Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN)

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Why in the news?

  • Nagaland as decided to prepare a master list of all indigenous peoples on the lines of the National Register of Citizens in Assam. It will be called the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland.
  • The register will help in checking issuance of fake indigenous inhabitant certificates
  • It will have a 60 day deadline for completion of the exercise and will be monitored by the Home Commissioner of Nagaland.


Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Why in the news?

A Distribution camp for free of cost distribution of 896 Physical Aid and Assistive Living devices to Senior Citizens under Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY) was held in Noida.

What is the Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana?

  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana is a scheme for providing Physical Aids and Assisted-living Devices for Senior citizens belonging to BPL category. 
  • This is a Central Sector Scheme, fully funded by the Central Government. 
  • The expenditure for implementation of the scheme will be met from the “Senior Citizens’ Welfare Fund”. 
  • The Scheme is implemented through the sole implementing agency – Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation (ALIMCO), a PSU under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • As far as possible, 30% of the beneficiaries in each district shall be women.


Japanese Encephalitis

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in the news?

In view of the recent reported Japanese Encephalitis (JE) cases in Assam, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare has dispatched a central team to review the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) situation in the State, today. He has directed the Ministry to extend all support and assistance to the State government.

What is Japanese Encephalitis (JE)?

  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
  • JEV is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries of Asia with an estimated 68 000 clinical cases every year.
  • JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans, once infected, do not develop sufficient viraemia to infect feeding mosquitoes. The virus exists in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds (enzootic cycle). The disease is predominantly found in rural and periurban settings, where humans live in closer proximity to these vertebrate hosts.
  • Although symptomatic Japanese encephalitis (JE) is rare, the case-fatality rate among those with encephalitis can be as high as 30%. Permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30%–50% of those with encephalitis.
  • 24 countries in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have endemic JEV transmission, exposing more than 3 billion people to risks of infection.
  • There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection.

Goods and Services Tax

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Why in the news?

The second anniversary of Good & Services Tax (GST) will be celebrated on July 1. At the event a book on “GST for MSME” will also be released. The distinguished officers of CBIC who have put in hard work in the implementation of GST will be awarded ‘GST Commendation Certificates’ by the Union Minister of State of Finance and Corporate Affairs.

What is the Goods and Services Tax?

  • GST is an Indirect Tax which has replaced many Indirect Taxes in India. The Goods and Service Tax Act was passed in the Parliament on 29th March 2017. The Act came into effect on 1st July 2017; Goods & Services Tax Law in India is a comprehensive, multi-stage, destination-based tax that is levied on every value addition.
  • Under the GST regime, the tax is levied at every point of sale. In the case of intra-state sales, Central GST and State GST are charged. Inter-state sales are chargeable to Integrated GST.
  • In the case of Goods and Services Tax, there is a way to claim credit for tax paid in acquiring input. What happens in this case is, the individual who has paid a tax already can claim credit for this tax when he submits his taxes. In the end, every time an individual is able to claim the input tax credit, the sale price is reduced and the cost price for the buyer is reduced because of lower tax liability. 
  • GST regime also brought a centralised system of waybills by the introduction of “E-way bills”. This system was launched on 1st April 2018 for Inter-state movement of goods and on 15th April 2018 for intra-state movement of goods in a staggered manner. Under the e-way bill system, manufacturers, traders & transporters are now able to generate e-way bills for the goods transported from the place of its origin to its destination on a common portal with ease. Tax authorities are also benefited as this system has reduced time at check -posts and help reduce tax evasion. 

What is meant by destination based tax?

Consider goods manufactured in Maharashtra and are sold to the final consumer in Karnataka. Since Goods & Service Tax is levied at the point of consumption. So, the entire tax revenue will go to Karnataka and not Maharashtra.

What is meant by multi-stage tax?

There are multiple change-of-hands an item goes through along its supply chain: from manufacture to final sale to the consumer. Goods and Services Tax is levied on each of these stages which makes it a multi-stage tax.

What is meant by Input Tax Credit (ITC)?

Input credit means at the time of paying tax on output, you can reduce the tax you have already paid on inputs.

Say, you are a manufacturer and you have the following tax liabilities –

  • tax payable on output (FINAL PRODUCT) is Rs 2000
  • tax paid on input i.e. material used to create the final product (PURCHASES) is Rs 1500
  • You can claim INPUT CREDIT of Rs 1500 and you only need to deposit Rs 500 in taxes.

What are the advantages of GST?

  • Removal of bundled indirect taxes such as VAT, CST, Service tax, CAD, SAD, and Excise.
  • Less tax compliance and a simplified tax policy compared to current tax structure.
  • Removal of cascading effect of taxes i.e. removes tax on tax.
  • Reduction of manufacturing costs due to lower burden of taxes on the manufacturing sector. Hence prices of consumer goods will be likely to come down.
  • Lower the burden on the common man i.e. public will have to shed less money to buy the same products that were costly earlier.
  • Increased demand and consumption of goods.
  • Increased demand will lead to increase supply. Hence, this will ultimately lead to a rise in the production of goods.
  • Control of black money circulation as the system normally followed by traders and shopkeepers will be put to a mandatory check.
  • Lead to the creation of a unified national market.


Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation (TRIFED)

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Why in the news?

TRIFED has signed an agreement to partner with Amazon’s Global Selling Programme to sell India’s traditional tribal handicrafts on the e-commerce platform.

What is TRIFED?

  • The Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) came into existence in 1987. It is a national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of India.
  • The ultimate objective of TRIFED is socio-economic development of tribal people in the country by way of marketing development of the tribal products on which the lives of tribals depends heavily as they spend most of their time and derive major portion of their income. 
  • The approach of marketing development of tribal products envisages TRIFED’s role as a facilitator and service provider. The philosophy behind this approach is to empower tribal people with knowledge, tools and pool of information so that they can undertake their operations in a more systematic and scientific manner. 
  • It involves capacity building of the tribal people through sensitization, formation of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and imparting training to them for undertaking a particular activity, exploring marketing possibilities in national as well as international markets, creating opportunities for marketing tribal products on a sustainable basis, creating a brand and providing other services.

Prelims Specific

  • The Balimela reservoir area , once a Maoist stronghold in Odisha’s Malkangiri district is now named as the Swabhiman Anchal region. It consists of 151 villages.
  • Special Rhino Protection Force (SRPF) is an 82 member force trained to combat poachers and understand animal behaviour in the Kaziranga National Park. Their job profile also includes protecting the tiger as Kaziranga is also a tiger reserve.
  • P-75I is a project of the Indian navy to acquire six diesel-electric submarines, which will also feature advanced air-independent propulsion systems to enable them to stay submerged for longer duration and substantially increase their operational range.