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General Bipin Rawat takes charge as India’s first Chief of Defence Staff


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Internal Security

Topic: Challenges to internal security (external state and non-state actors)




The government has modified the Service Rules of the Army, Navy and Air Force to enable the appointment of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and fix the upper age limit at 65 if a service chief is appointed to the post of CDS.

  • The service (Army, Navy and Indian Air Force) chiefs, when appointed, are usually given a tenure of three years or till they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier.
  • However, the tenure of the CDS has not been fixed yet.


Chief of Defence Staff


  • The Cabinet Committee on Securityapproved the creation of the CDS on 24th December 2019.
  • Role
    • The CDS will act as the principal military adviser to the defence ministeron all matters relating to tri-services. He will be appointed in a four-star rank at par with the three service chiefs.
    • The CDS will also serve as the permanent chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC)which comprises the three service chiefs.
      • So far, the chairmanship of the CoSC has not been permanent and is held in rotation by the senior-most service chief, which has caused problems of inadequate attention and short tenures as Chairman, CoSC.
    • The tri-service agencies, organisations and commands relating to cyber and space will be under the command of the CDS.
    • The CDS will also function as theMilitary Adviser to the Nuclear Command Authority.
  • Major Responsibilities
    • The key mandate of the CDS will be to facilitate the restructuring of military commands for optimal utilisation of resources by bringing about jointness in operations, including through the establishment of joint/theatre commands.
    • To achieve jointness in operation, logistics, transport, training, support services, communications, repairs and maintenance of the three services within three years of assuming office.
  • The CDS will not be eligible to hold any government post after demitting office. The CDS will also not be allowed to take up any private employment, without prior approval, for a period of five years after demitting (resigning) the office.


Registration of political parties under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 – Political Parties Registration Tracking Management System(PPRTMS)


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Polity and Governance

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act


The system will track applications registered by political parties. The status of the application shall be obtained through SMS or e-mail. The system works on a real time basis. For a political party to contest in election, it has to submit an application to the election commission. The commission checks if the party satisfies the criteria governed by section 29A of Representation of People Act, 1951.


Registration of Political Parties


  • The Registration of Political Parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • A party seeking registration under the said section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation.
  • The application must be in prescribed format with basic particulars about the party such as name, address, membership details of various units, names of office bearers etc.


First Indigenous Fuel Cell System launched


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Science and Technology

Topic: Indigenisation of technology and developing new technology


On the occasion of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Foundation Day, the President of India recently introduced India’s first indigenously developed high-temperature based Fuel Cell System.

  • It is developed under the Public-Private Partnership (PPP)model by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in partnership with Indian industries.
  • It is built under India’s flagship programme named ‘New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)’.




  • The developed fuel cells are based on High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM)
  • It is a0 kWfuel cell system that generates power in a green manner.
    • It takes methanol or bio-methane as the inputand produces heat and water as its bi-products, which can be further used.
  • This helps to attain an efficiency that is greater than 70%, which is difficult to achieve by other energy sources.


High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) Technology


  • High-Temperature Proton-Exchange-Membrane (HTPEM) is the core of the fuel cells that run above 150 °C. It works on two modes of operation with respect to the source of fuel.
  • One mode is based on the conversion of natural gas into Hydrogenby means of steam reforming. This mode is used to fulfill stationary power
    • Steam reformingor steam methane reforming is a chemical synthesis process for producing syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from hydrocarbons such as natural gas.
  • The second mode is based on the operation of Hydrogen with Oxygenobtained by the process of  This is generally used in the space-related applications.
    • Electrolysisis a chemical decomposition process in which an electric current is passed through a liquid or a solution containing ions.


Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)


  • CSIR is an autonomous research and development body established by the Government of India on 26 September 1942.
  • It is established under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • It covers a wide spectrum of science and technology fields from radio and space physics, oceanography, geophysics, chemicals, drugs, genomics, biotechnology, and nanotechnology to mining, aeronautics, instrumentation, environmental engineering, and information technology.


New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)


  • It is the largest Public-Private-Partnershipeffort within the R&D domain in the country.
  • NMITLI seeks to catalyze innovationcentred scientific and technological developments as a vehicle to attain for Indian industry a global leadership position, in selected niche areas. It synergizes the best competencies of publicly funded R&D institutions, academia, and private industry.
  • NMITLI has so far evolved 60 largely networked projects in diversified areas viz. Agriculture & Plant Biotechnology, General Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Materials, Information and Communication Technology, and Energy.




  • This fuel system is most suitable to fulfil distributed stationary power applicationsdemands like in small offices, commercial units, data centres, etc. where highly reliable power is essential with simultaneous requirement for air-conditioning.
  • This system will meet the requirement of efficient, clean and reliable backup power generatorsthat are demanded by telecom towers, remote locations, and strategic applications.
  • The Fuel Cells fit well in India’s mission of replacing Dieselbased Generating (DG) sets with the green and alternate fuels.
    • This development is therefore expected to reduce India’s dependence on crude oil.
  • The technology has placed India in the league of developed nations which are in possession of such a knowledge base.