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          3 years on, a mere 30% of Poshan Abhiyaan funds used


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Governance

Topic: Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation


  • POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • The Mission is aimed at improving the nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner during the next three years beginning 2017-18.
  • The Abhiyan aims to achieve convergence with various programmes i.e., Anganwadi Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, Janani Suraksha Yojana, National Health Mission, Swachh-Bharat Mission, Public Distribution System, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.





  • Poshan Abhiyaan which focuses on reducing stunting, under-nutrition and anaemia in women and adolescents through direct cash transfers is a massive step towards eradicating malnutrition.
  • Poshan Abhiyaan has got global recognition for its effort to eradicate malnutrition.
  • Cash transfers under the mission provide an additional support to the family income.
  • The whole issue of malnutrition requires concrete action starting from the grassroot level at households as well as the community level.
  • The first and the most important step for reducing malnutrition in India is providing sufficient nutrition to pregnant and lactating mothers. The child then automatically is at much less risk of being malnourished.


                                   Pathagarhi  Movement


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Indian History

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganisation within the country.


Recently the Union government withdrew amendments to the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 which would have diluted tribal rights over forests. These amendments evoked sustained protests by tribal and environmental activists.

  • The state government ofJharkhand tried to amend the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 and Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act, 1876 to facilitate easier land acquisition norms which added to the problem. They were also withdrawn later on.
  • However, these decisions gave rise to the Pathalgarhi incidentsin the tribal belt demanding implementation of the FRA and provisions of the Panchayats (Extension of Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA), 1996.
  • Birsa Munda’sstruggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribals led to the passing of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908 which restricted the passing of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.
  • The Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act, 1876prohibits the sale of Adivasi land to non-Adivasis in Santhal Pargana region along Jharkhand’s border with Bengal.


Pathagarhi Rebellion


  • It is a protestin which tribal people embed stone slabs (pathals) on the outskirts of a village or area, demarcating the limits of where their writ runs, prohibiting the entry of any institution connected to the state.
  • It is mainly concentrated in the four districts in the State— namely Khunti, Gumla, Simdega and West Singhbhum.
  • In Munda tribal custom, placement of a huge stone marks the death of a person. The Pathalgadi movement draws on this tradition of honouring the community’s ancestors.


The Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Area) Act, 1996


  • It safeguards and preservesthe traditions and customs of the people, and their cultural identity, community resources, customary mode of dispute resolution.
  • PESA empowersGram Sabha/Panchayat at an appropriate level with the right to mandatory consultation in land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced persons.
  • It seeks to reduce alienationin tribal areas as they will have better control over the utilisation of public resources.
  • It will helpminimise exploitation of tribal population as they will be able to control and manage money lending, consumption and sale of liquor and also village markets.
  • It promotes cultural heritagethrough the preservation of traditions, customs and cultural identity of tribal population.


                       Pak. to host OIC meet on Kashmir, CAA


Paper: GS 2

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting the Indian interests


About the OIC:


  • Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states.
  • It is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations.
  • The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony“.
  • The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union.
  • Permanent Secretariat is in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Like NAM again, the OIC is a toothless tigerwhen it comes to dealing with squabbles among member states.


Significance of OIC for India:


  • OIC’s growing economic and energy interdependence with India has become important in recent times.
  • That India has one of the world’s largest Muslim populations, of course, is the immediate explanation of the surprising invite for Swaraj to address the OIC.


                     Due process is a must to seek damages


Paper: GS 2

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting the Indian interests

Article 21 in The Constitution Of India


Protection of life and personal liberty :- No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

Difference between “Due process of law” and  “Procedure established by law”

Procedure established by law

  • It means that a law that is duly enacted by legislature or the concerned body is valid if it has followed the correct procedure.
  • In this the court would assess that whether there is law or not, whether the Legislature is competent to frame the law and whether it had followed the procedure laid down to legislate and would not assess the intent of the said law.
  • This doctrine has a major flaw. It does not assess whether the laws made by Parliament is fair, just and not arbitrary.
  • “Procedure established by law” means a law duly enacted is valid even if it’s contrary to principles of justice and equity.
  • Strictly following procedure established by law may raise the risk of compromise to life and personal liberty of individuals due to unjust laws made by the law making authorities. Thus, Procedure established by law protect the individual against the arbitrary action of only the executive.


Due Process of Law


  • Due process of law doctrine not only checks if there is a law to deprive the life and personal liberty of a person, but also see if the law made is fair, just and not arbitrary.
  • If SC finds that any law as not fair, it will declare it as null and void. This doctrine provides for more fair treatment of individual rights.
  • Under due process, it is the legal requirement that the state must respect all of the legal rights that are owed to a person and laws that states enact must confirm to the laws of the land like – fairness, fundamental rights, liberty etc.
  • It also gives the judiciary to assess the fundamental fairness, justice, and liberty of any legislation.
  • Thus Due process protect the individual against the arbitrary action of both executive and legislature.


The difference in layman’s terms is as below:


Due Process of Law = Procedure Established by Law + The procedure should be fair and just and not arbitrary.

What is practically followed in India?

  • In India a liberal interpretation is made by judiciary after 1978 and it has tried to make the term ‘Procedure established by law’ as synonymous with ‘Due process’ when it comes to protect individual rights.
  • In Maneka Gandhi vs Union of India case (1978) SC held that – ‘Procedure established by law’ within the meaning of article 21 must be ‘right and just and fair’ and ‘not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive’ otherwise, it would be no procedure at all and the requirement of Article 21 would not be satisfied.
  • Thus, the ‘procedure established by law’ has acquired the same significance in India as the ‘due process of law’ clause in America.