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Exercise Hand-in-Hand-2019


Paper: GS 2


Topic: India and its neighborhood – International relations

The 8th India-China joint training exercise ‘HAND-IN-HAND 2019’ with the theme counter terrorism under United Nations mandate is scheduled to be conduct at Umroi, Meghalaya from 07 to 20 December 2019. The Chinese contingent from the Tibet Military command comprising of 130 personal and the Indian Contingent of similar strength will participate in the 14 day long training exercise.

Aim of the Exercise:
  • To build and promote close relations between armies of both the countries.
  • To enhance ability of joint exercise commander to take military contingents of both nations under command.
  • To acquaint both the Armies with each other’s operating procedure in the backdrop of counter terrorism environment.

Exercise Hand-in-Hand 2018 will go a long way to further cement relationship between both the nations and will act as a catalyst in bringing bonhomie at grassroots levels between the armies of both countries.

Eklavya Model Residential Schools


Paper: GS 2


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and the States and the performance of these schemes

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As per the budget 2018-19, every block with more than 50% ST population and at least 20,000 tribal persons will have an Eklavya Model Residential School by 2022.



What is Eklavya Model Residential School (EMRS)?

EMRS is a Government of India scheme for model residential school for Indian tribals (Scheduled Tribes, ST) across India.

Objectives of EMRS:


  • Comprehensive physical, mental and socially relevant development of all students enrolled in each and every EMRS. Students will be empowered to be change agent, beginning in their school, in their homes, in their village and finally in a larger context.
  • Focus differentially on the educational support to be made available to those in Standards XI and XII, and those in standards VI to X, so that their distinctive needs can be met,
  • Support the annual running expenses in a manner that offers reasonable remuneration to the staff and upkeep of the facilities.
  • Support the construction of infrastructure that provides education, physical, environmental and cultural needs of student life.


Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) initiative


Paper: GS 3


Topic: Environmental pollution and degradation


SATAT has following four objectives:

  • Utilisingmore than 62 million metric tonnes of waste generated every year in India,
  • Cutting down import dependence,
  • Supplementing job creationin the country, and
  • Reducing vehicular emissionsand pollution from burning of agricultural / organic waste.

Compressed Bio-Gas


  • Bio-gas is produced naturally through a process of anaerobic decomposition from waste / bio-masssources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, sewage treatment plant waste, etc. After purification, it is compressed and called CBG, which has pure methane content of over 90%.
  • Compressed Bio-Gas is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gasin its composition and energy potential.
  • CBG can be used as an alternative, renewable automotive fuel.Given the abundance of biomass in the country, CBG has the potential to replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial uses in the coming years.


Polavaram Project


Paper: GS 3


Topic: Infrastructure – Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.


Polavaram irrigation project is a multipurpose irrigation project across Godavari river in West Godavari district with its reservoirs spreading across states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa as well. It is a national project which implies that its implementation is monitored by the Central Water Commission. The project is slated to be complete by 2019.

The project endeavours to develop irrigation, drinking water facilities and hydropower to regions of East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Krishna and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Blue Flag Certification for beaches


Paper: GS 3


Topic: Environmental pollution and degradation


  • The MoEFCC had selected 12 beaches in India to vie for a ‘Blue Flag’ certification, an international recognition conferred on beaches that meet certain criteria of cleanliness and environmental propriety.
Blue Flag Programme


  • The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education) based in Denmark.
  • It started in France in 1985 and has been implemented in Europe since 1987, and in areas outside Europe since 2001, when South Africa joined.
  • Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and South Eastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.
  • Spain tops the list with 566 such beaches; Greece and France follow with 515 and 395, respectively.
Proposed Beaches


  • These beaches are at Shivrajpur (Gujarat), Bhogave (Maharashtra), Ghoghla (Diu), Miramar (Goa), Kasarkod and Padubidri (Karnataka), Kappad (Kerala), Eden (Puducherry), Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu), Rushikonda (Andhra Pradesh), Golden (Odisha), and Radhanagar (Andaman & Nicobar Islands).