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Atal Bhujal Yojana


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Governance

Topic: Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


  • The Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY) is a centrally sponsored scheme worth6,000 crorefor sustainable management of groundwater with community participation.
    • It envisages people’s participation through the formation of ‘Water User Associations’, water budgeting, preparation & implementation of Gram-panchayat-wise water security plans, etc.
  • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Jal Shakti(earlier known as Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation).
  • The scheme is being funded by the Government of India and the World Bankon 50:50
  • The identified over-exploited and water-stressed areasfor the implementation of the scheme are Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
    • The States have been selected according to the degree of groundwater exploitation and degradation, established legal and regulatory instruments, institutional readiness, and experience in implementing initiatives related to groundwater management.


Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya


Paper: GS 1

Subject: Indian History

Topic: Different stages and important contributors and contributions from various parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’.


  • He was an Indian educationist and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and Malaviya became president of the Indian National Congress as many as four times.
  • He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and also addressed as ‘Mahamana’.
  • His multifaceted personality made him, at the same time, a great patriot, an educationist with a vision, a social reformer, an ardent journalist, reluctant but effective lawyer, a successful parliamentarian and an outstanding statesman.
  • Among Malaviyaji’s many achievements, the most monumental was the establishment of the Banaras Hindu University or Kashi Hindu Vishvavidyalaya. In the course of his lifetime Banaras Hindu University came to be known as a Capital of Knowledge acknowledged across India and the World.
  • Malaviya ji was one of the founders of Scouting in India
  • He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909
  • Pandit ji was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary


What was his unique contribution to BHU?

  • The Nizam of Hyderabad was renowned to be tight-fisted. Getting him to make a donation was perceived next to impossible. Armed with a steely determination, Malaviya managed to extract such a large donation from the Nizam that even today there is a Nizam Hyderabad Colony in Banaras Hindu University (BHU) where dozens of teachers and their families reside.

His association with Freedom Movement

  • Mahatma Gandhi considered him to be his conscience-keeper and called him his elder brother on public platforms. Still, Malaviya didn’t hesitate in disagreeing with the Mahatma when it came to principles. During the Quit India Movement of 1942, when Bapu asked students to boycott schools, Malaviya publicly expressed his displeasure.
  • Boycotting educational institutes was something Malaviya considered antithetical to the nation’s interests. “If children don’t study, how can they prepare for running the country,” was Malaviya’s reasoning.
  • He was one of the signatories of Poona pact. Had this not been signed, the British would have sowed some more seeds of conflict in the name of Dalits. Therefore, Malaviya was a real visionary.
  • Very few people are aware that 172 people were sentenced to be hung in the Chauri Chaura case. By then Malaviya had left legal practice owing to politics and social work. Still, he fought the case on their behalf and managed to get 153 people acquitted.
  • Rabindranath Tagore honoured him with the encomium ‘Mahamana’ (a luminous mind and magnanimous heart).



‘Good Governance Index’


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Governance

Topic: Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


On December 25, 2019, Government of India launched Good Governance Index. Tamil Nadu topped in Good Governance Index.


Highlights of the report


The States and Union Territories were divided into 3 groups namely Big states, North East and hill states and union territories.

Tamil Nadu topped in Good Governance Index in the “Big States” category. It was followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. The report also said that among the big states the poor performers were Odisha, Bihar, Goa and Uttar Pradesh. Jharkhand was ranked the last in good governance index.

In the North East and hill states category, Himachal Pradesh ranked first. It was followed by Uttarakhand, Tripura, Mizoram and Sikkim. The bad performers of the category include Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.


Agricultural ranking


In Agricultural and allied ranking, the best performing states were Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram and Daman and Diu. In order to frame agricultural rating parameters such as food grain production, milk and meat production, horticulture produce and crop insurance were considered.


Commerce and Industries


Under the category of commerce and industries, Delhi, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were the top performers.