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Cabinet approves creation of the post of Chief of Defence Staff in the rank of four star General


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Internal security

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism


The Chief of Defence Staff will also head the Department of Military Affairs (DMA), to be created within the Ministry of Defence and function as its Secretary.


The following areas will be dealt by the Department of Military Affairs headed by CDS:

  1. The Armed Forces of the Union, namely, the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  2. Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence comprising Army Headquarters, Naval Headquarters, Air Headquarters and Defence Staff Headquarters.
  3. The Territorial Army.
  4. Works relating to the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  5. Procurement exclusive to the Services except capital acquisitions, as per prevalent rules and procedures.


Apart from the above, the mandate of the Department of Military Affairs will include the following areas:

  1. Promoting jointness in procurement, training and staffing for the Services through joint planning and integration of their requirements.
  2. Facilitation of restructuring of Military Commands for optimal utilisation of resources by bringing about jointness in operations, including through establishment of joint/theatre commands.
  3. Promoting use of indigenous equipment by the Services.


The Chief of Defence Staff, apart from being the head of the Department of Military Affairs, will also be the Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee. He will act as the Principal Military Adviser to Raksha Mantri on all tri-Services matters. The three Chiefs will continue to advise RM on matters exclusively concerning their respective Services. CDS will not exercise any military command, including over the three Service Chiefs, so as to be able to provide impartial advice to the political leadership.


As the Permanent Chairman of Chiefs of Staff Committee, CDS will perform the following functions:

  • CDS will administer tri-services organisations. Tri-service agencies/organisations/commands related to Cyber and Space will be under the command of the CDS.
  • CDS will be member of Defence Acquisition Council chaired by Raksha Mantri and Defence Planning Committee chaired by NSA.
  • Function as the Military Adviser to the Nuclear Command Authority.
  • Bring about jointness in operation, logistics, transport, training, support services, communications, repairs and maintenance, etc of the three Services, within three years of the first CDS assuming office.
  • Ensure optimal utilisation of infrastructure and rationalise it through jointness among the services.
  • Implement Five-Year Defence Capital Acquisition Plan (DCAP), and Two-Year roll-on Annual Acquisition Plans (AAP), as a follow up of Integrated Capability Development Plan (ICDP).
  • Assign inter-Services prioritisation to capital acquisition proposals based on the anticipated budget.
  • Bring about reforms in the functioning of three Services aimed at augmenting combat capabilities of the Armed Forces by reducing wasteful expenditure.

It is expected that this reform in the Higher Defence Management would enable the Armed Forces to implement coordinated defence doctrines and procedures and go a long way in fostering jointmanship among the three Services. The country would be benefitted by coordinated action on greater jointmanship in training, logistics and operations as well as for prioritisation of procurements.

India and Saudi Arabia Relations


Paper: GS 2

Subject: International Relations

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting the Indian interests


  • India-Saudi Strategic Partnership Councilwas formed to coordinate on strategically important issues. The council will be headed by the Prime Minister and Crown Prince Mohammed and will meet every two years.
    • India is the fourth country with which Saudi Arabia has formed such a strategic partnership,after the UK, France and China.
  • 12 Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs)on issues related to defence industries, security, air services, renewable energy, medicine products regulation, prevention of narcotics trafficking, and the use of RuPay cards in Saudi Arabia.
    • India also cleared an MoU that will help Hajj pilgrims to travel comfortably in Saudi Arabia during the pilgrimage seasons.
  • Stand on terrorism and other issues:
    • Both sides condemned terrorism in all forms and stated that no particular religion, race or culture should be linked with international terrorism.
    • Discussed a number of regional conflicts like the war in Syriaand Yemen and sought lasting peace in the Palestinian territories for the establishment of the independent Palestinian state based on the pre-1967 borders with “Jerusalem as its capital”.
  • Future Investment Initiative:
    • It is Saudi Arabia’s annual investment forum,also known as ‘Davos in the Desert’. The informal name derives from the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting that is held in Davos, Switzerland, where world leaders discuss and shape agendas for pressing international issues.
    • The Prime Minister of India also invited Saudi companies to invest in India’s energy sector as India has set a target of $100 billion investment in the sector by 2024.
  • Cooperation in the Energy Sector:
    • Saudi Arabia is keen to play a role in the creation of strategic petroleum reservesat Padur in Karnataka.
    • A study is being conducted for the setting up of the world’s largest greenfield refinery at Raigarh in Maharashtra by Saudi Aramco, Adnoc of the United Arab Emirates and Indian public sector oil companies.

India – Saudi Arabia Ties

  • Saudi Arabia is a strategic partner of Indiasince the signing of the Riyadh Declaration in 2010.
  • It is currently India’s second-largest supplier of crude oil– providing about 18 % of its energy needs. It also has a major role in India’s Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPRs).
    • The largest supplier of crude oil is Iraq.
  • It is India’s 4thlargest trade partner. In 2018-19, the India-Saudi bilateral trade was the US $ 34.03 billion.
  • The 6 million-strong Indian community in Saudi Arabiais the largest expatriate community in the Kingdom and is the ‘most preferred community’ due to their expertise, sense of discipline, law-abiding and peace-loving nature.
  • Haj pilgrimage is another important component of bilateral relations.


Cabinet approves Promulgation of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Indian Economy

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment.

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi approved a proposal to promulgate an Ordinance and  to amend the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.

The Amendment will remove certain ambiguities in the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 and ensure smooth implementation of the Code.

Under the Amendments, the liability of a corporate debtor for an offence committed prior to the commencement of the corporate insolvency resolution process shall cease, and the corporate debtor shall not be prosecuted for such an offence from the date the resolution plan has been approved by the Adjudicating Authority, if the resolution plan results in the change in the management or control of the corporate debtor to a person who was not:

  1. A promoter or in the management or control of the corporate debtor or a related party of such a person; or


  1.  A person with regard to whom the relevant investigating authority has, on the basis of material in its possession, reason to believe that he had abetted or conspired for the commission of the offence, and has submitted or filed a report or a complaint to the relevant statutory authority or Court.

Subject to relevant provisions the corporate debtor shall, as required, extend all assistance and co-operation to any authority investigating an offence committed prior to the commencement of the corporate insolvency resolution process.