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Exercise Hand-in-Hand 2019


Paper: GS 2

Subject: International Relations

Topic: India and its neighbourhood – International relations


  • The eighth edition of India-China joint training exercise  Hand-in-Hand 2019 culminated on 20 December 2019 at Joint Training Node, Umroi, Meghalaya.
  • The exercise was aimed at practicing the joint drills of counter terrorism operations in a semi urban terrain under United Nation mandate.
  • The exercise entailed firing of each other’s weapons, conduct of tactical lectures & demonstration by both countries with respect to various aspects of counter terrorism operations.
  • The high joint training standards achieved by both contingents were on display during a 72 hours field training exercise which encompassed various drills requiring seamless integration of action of part of troops involved in the facets of counter terrorism operations in conjunction with grueling methods to execute the assigned tasks.





Paper: GS 2

Subject: Polity and Governance

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.


The Election Commission of India has developed an integrated ICT counting application which will display the results on the website http://results.eci.gov.in and Voter Helpline (Android & iOS) Mobile App. The data is entered by the Returning Officers directly in the centralised software ‘ENCORE’ developed by the Election Commission of India. This application allows the Returning Officers to enter table-wise data in the software, thereby considerably reducing the time and makes the results & trends data error-free.


Chaudhary Charan Singh


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Indian History

Topic: Different stages and important contributors and contributions from various parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’.


  • He joined the Indian National Congress and took part in the freedom movement. In 1930, he was imprisoned by the British for participating in Salt satyagraha.
  • He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces from Chhaprauli constituency in the 1937 provincial elections.
  • The next year, in the assembly, he introduced the Agricultural Produce Market Bill. Most provinces in the country adopted this bill which was aimed at securing peasant interests in the face of the traders’ self-serving measures.
  • Singh was elected to the UP Assembly from the same constituency in 1946, 1952, 1962 and 1967. He became a Cabinet Minister in UP for the first time in 1951 and was given several portfolios on different occasions thereafter.
  • In 1967, he quit the INC and formed his own party called the Bharatiya Kranti Dal.
  • He became the Chief Minister of UP twice, the first time from April 1967 to February 1968 and then from February to October 1970.
  • He was chiefly concerned with interests of the peasants. In UP, he was the chief architect of the land reforms. He put a cap on the land holdings to bring about uniformity in the state in this regard through the Land Holdings Act 1960. He also worked for the complete abolition of the Zamindari System.
  • Singh had opposed Jawaharlal Nehru’s soviet-style economic policies and it is said that his political career suffered due to this.
  • In 1975, he was jailed by Indira Gandhi during the Emergency. After the Emergency and the General Elections in 1977, he became the Home Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister in the Morarji Desai-led union government.
  • Singh became the country’s Prime Minister in 1979 after Desai.
  • Not counting Acting PM Gulzari Lal Nanda, Charan Singh was the shortest-serving Prime Minister of India. He was the Indian PM for 170 days. His government fell when Indira Gandhi-led INC withdrew support. Singh resigned stating he would not be blackmailed into withdrawing emergency-related court cases against Gandhi.
  • After that, he was a Lok Dal leader until his death in 1987 following a stroke. His birth anniversary is celebrated as ‘Farmer’s Day’ in India.


Some of the works of Charan Singh


  • Joint Farming X-rayed
  • Economic Nightmare of India: Its Cause and Cure
  • Abolition of Zamindari
  • India’s Economic Policy – The Gandhian Blueprint