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Pinaka missiles


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Internal Security

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organised crime with terrorism


  • Pinaka is an indigenous multi-barrel rocket launch system,which has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Army.
  • Its weapon system has a state-of-the-art guidance kit bolstered by an advanced navigation and control system.
    • The Pinaka Mark II Rocketis modified as a missile by integrating with the navigation, control and guidance system to improve the accuracy and enhance the range.
    • The navigation system of the missile is aided by the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
  • It is an artillery missile system capable of striking into enemy territory up to a range of 75 kilometres with high precision.
    • The initial version of weapon system was called Mark I,which had a range of 40 km. The upgraded version or Pinaka Mark II has an extended range of 70 to 80 km.
  • The mission achieved all the objectivesincluding enhancing the range, accuracy and sub-system functionality.



EChO Network 


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Indian Economy

Topic: Infrastructure – Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.


EChO Network is a collaborative effort of the Government of India, industry and academia.

Key Points

  • EChO Network is a national programto provide a template for cross-disciplinary leadership related to ecology and environment.
  • EChO Network would develop a national networkto catalyse a new generation of Indians who can synthesize interdisciplinary concepts and tackle real-world problems in medicine, agriculture, ecology, and technology.
  • It has a specific focuson increasing research, knowledge, and awareness of Indian ecology and the environment.
  • The network aims to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the environment and then train postdoctoral leaders in research and outreach on these topics, incorporating current public and private efforts.


FIT India


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Indian Governance

Topic: Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


  • The Prime Minister on the occasion of National Sports Daylaunched the ‘Fit India Movement’ as the People’s Movement & urged people to make fitness their lifestyle.
  • National Sports Dayis celebrated every year on 29th August to honor the legendary hockey player Major Dhyan Chand Singh.
  • The President of India on this occasion honoured the eminent athletes from various sports with the prestigious Khel Ratna, Arjuna Awards, Dronacharya Awards, and Dhyan Chand Award.