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Subramania Bharathi


Paper: GS 1

Subject: Indian History

Topic: Different stages and important contributors and contributions from various parts of the country in ‘The Freedom Struggle’.


  • It was in Benares that Bharathi was exposed further to Hindu spirituality and the idea of nationalism.
  • He also attended Congress sessions.
  • He also worked as an editor of magazines and newspapers. He also contributed to these journals. His poems and hymns were based on diverse themes like patriotism, relationship between man and god, Russian and French revolutions, children, devotional, etc. These magazines included Swadeshamitran, India and Bala Bharatham.
  • At the historic Surat session of the Congress in 1907 when the party split into extremists and moderates, Bharathi sided with Bal Gangadhar Tilak and supported armed resistance against the authorities.
  • In 1908, Bharathi fled to Pondicherry, then under the French, when faced with the prospect of arrest owing to his writings in ‘India’.
  • In Pondicherry, he edited and published journals India, Vijaya, Bala Bharatham and Suryodayam. In 1909, the British government banned ‘India’ and ‘Vijaya’ in India.
  • Bharathi also met great leaders like Aurobindo, Lala Lajpat Rai and V V S Aiyar while in Pondicherry. He started learning Vedic literature here. He translated Vedic hymns, Bhagavad Gita and Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra into Tamil.
  • In 1918, when Bharathi entered India, he was arrested. He was released after 3 weeks following the intervention of Annie Besant and C P Ramaswamy Aiyar.
  • In 1919, he met Mahatma Gandhi. One year later in 1920, he resumed being the editor of Swadeshamitran in Chennai. He spent the last few years of his life in Triplicane, Chennai.
  • Subramanya Bharathi was an advocate of women’s rights and also against the caste system. According to him, Indian society would have to be united before being liberated from foreign rule. He condemned certain Shastras that denigrated women. He believed in the equality of humankind and criticised many preachers for mixing their personal prejudices while teaching the Gita and the Vedas.
  • He is considered the foremost poet in not only modern Tamil language but in all of Tamil history. He is widely regarded as the pioneer of modern Tamil literature. He used simple but effective words and rhythm. As a poet, his theme ranged from patriotism to nature, from romance to philosophy, from devotion to self-respect. He also wrote also of the need for scientific advancements if the country was to move ahead.
  • His famous poems include Achamillai Achamillai, Suttum Vizhichudadar, Agni Sthomam, etc.
  • He was a polyglot and translated the speeches of Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda and Tilak into Tamil.
  • He wrote on not only Hindu deities but also on deities from other religions.
  • His poems have and continue to inspire millions of people around the globe. He is fondly called ‘Mahakavi’ or ‘Great Poet’.
  • Bharathi was struck by ill-health due to his arrests. He passed away on 11 September 1921 aged just 38.
  • In 1949, he became the first poet whose works were nationalised by the state government.


National Logistics Policy


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Indian Economy

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment.

The vision of the proposed policy is to drive economic growth and business competitiveness of the country through an integrated, seamless, efficient, reliable, green, sustainable and cost effective logistics network leveraging best in class technology, processes and skilled manpower.

Though, there is no official estimation of logistics cost for India, some private institutions have estimated the logistics cost to be 13 to 14 percent of the GDP. The proposed policy aims to reduce this to 9 -10 percent of the GDP.

In order to simplify documentation for exports and imports through  digitization,  Department of Revenue, CBIC have taken several initiatives like  (i) SWIFT ( Single Window Interface For Trade )  (ii) Adoption of Digital Signature (iii) 24×7 Customs Clearance – for facilitated Bills of Entry and factory stuffed containers and goods exported under free Shipping Bills at select  ports  (iv) Import Data Processing and Management System (IDPMS) – jointly launched with RBI to facilitate efficient data processing for payment of imports and effective monitoring  (v) E-Sanchit  (vi) Two new IT  Modules ICEDASH (Ease of doing business monitoring dashboard) and ATITHI app for electronic filing by passengers for baggage (vii) PCS 1X which is a platform for port related processes developed by Indian Ports Association.


North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme (NESIDS)


Paper: GS 3

Subject: Indian Economy

Topic: Infrastructure – Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme (NESIDS) has been approved by the Government of India as a new Central Sector Scheme in 2017




The broad objective of NESIDS is to ensure focused development of North East Region by providing financial assistance for projects of (a) physical infrastructure relating to water supply, power, connectivity and specially the projects promoting tourism and (b) social sector for creation of infrastructure in the areas of primary and secondary sectors of education and health.


Key features


  • Under the Scheme 100% centrally funding is provided to the State Governments of the North Eastern Region for the projects of physical infrastructure
  • North East Special Infrastructure Development Schemes (NESIDS), fully funded by the Government of India, is taken up to fill up the gaps of infrastructure in certain identified sectors of the Region.
  • The NESIDS will accord focus on the exploitation of the huge tourism potential of the area by way of strengthening related infrastructureand will also give emphasis on the creation of an infrastructure of social sectors like health and education.
  • Only those projects would be considered for funding under the scheme which are not supported under any other scheme of Central or State Government.
  • Duration of NESIDS is 3 years(2017-18 to 2019-20)


Funding arrangement: 


  1. The funds under NESIDS will be allocated to States on the basis of Normative Allocation at the beginning of the Financial Year. However, funds will be provided for the ongoing projects under NLCPR so that they are completed by 2019-20.
  2. If any of the States are not in a position to absorb the funds, their allocations maybe diverted to better performing States


Parliament passes the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2019


Paper: GS 2

Subject: Polity and Governance

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures

What is Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2019?

• The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill-2019 will provide Indian citizenship to the six minority communities from Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. These six communities are – Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, Christian and Sikhs.
• At present, it is mandatory for a person to stay here for at least 11 years to get citizenship of India.
• The bill will reduce this period to six years. It will enable people from these communities to get Indian citizenship in six years.
• It will make some amendments to the Citizenship Act 1955 to provide legal aid for citizenship.