For online IAS classes

For online IAS classes, Click Here, Click here.

Defence & Foreign Secretaries of India & Australia hold third 2+2 dialogue



Paper: GS 2
Subject: International Relations
Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.


  1. 2+2 dialogue is second highest level of engagement between both countries after summit-level engagement between the heads of the state. It was agreed between both during visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to US in June, 2017. It is similar to India-Japan 2+2 dialogue format between foreign and defence secretaries and ministers of the two countries.
  2. 2+2 dialogue is aimed enhancing strategic coordination between both countries and maintaining peace and stability in Indo-Pacific region. It puts strategic, defence and security relationship between two countries at forefront and centre stage.
  • 2+2 dialogue insulates the strategic relationships from feuds over trade issues and deep divide on economic integration policies as trade and commercial issues that collided with strategic relationship between both countries’ discussed in Strategic and Commercial Dialogue earlier.


Government has introduced 33 tranches of Sovereign Gold Bonds


Paper: GS 3
Subject: Indian Economy
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment.
About the Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme:


  1. The sovereign gold bond was introduced by the Government in 2015.
  2. Government introduced these bonds to help reduce India’s over dependence on gold imports.
  3. The move was also aimed at changing the habits of Indians from saving in physical form of gold to a paper form with Sovereign backing.


Key facts:

Eligibility: The bonds will be restricted for sale to resident Indian entities, including individuals, HUFs, trusts, universities and charitable institutions.

Denomination and tenorThe bonds will be denominated in multiples of gram(s) of gold with a basic unit of 1 gram. The tenor will be for a period of 8 years with exit option from the 5th year to be exercised on the interest payment dates.

Minimum and Maximum limitThe minimum permissible investment limit will be 1 gram of gold, while the maximum limit will be 4 kg for individual, 4 kg for HUF and 20 kg for trusts and similar entities per fiscal (April-March) notified by the government from time to time.

Joint HolderIn case of joint holding, the investment limit of 4 kg will be applied to the first applicant only.

Collateral: Bonds can be used as collateral for loans. The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is to be set equal to ordinary gold loan mandated by the Reserve Bank from time to time.

Tenor: The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with exit option after 5th year to be exercised on the interest payment dates.

Interest rateThe investors will be compensated at a fixed rate of 2.50 percent per annum payable semi-annually on the nominal value.


Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya National Mission on Teachers and Training (PMMMNMTT)



Paper: GS 2
Subject: Polity and Governance
Topic: Government policies and interventions aimed at development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


  • The Central Sector Scheme of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers & Teaching having All India coverage, was launched by the Prime Minister of India on 25thDecember, 2014 with an outlay of Rs. 900 crore and the scheme has been approved for continuation till March 2020.
  • The Mission addresses current and urgent issues of supply of qualified teachers, attracting talent into teaching profession and raising the quality of teaching in schools and colleges.
  • The Mission also pursues the long term goals of building a strong professional cadre of teachers by setting performance standards and creating top class institutional facilities for innovative teaching and professional development of teachers.



       Composite Water Management Index


Paper: GS 3
Subject: Environment and Ecology
Topic: Environment and resource conservation


  • NITI Aayogfirst launched and conceptualized the Composite Water Management Index in 2018 as a tool to instil a sense of cooperative and competitive federalism among the states.
  • It provided actionable guidanceto States on where they were doing well absolutely and relatively and what they needed to focus on to secure their water
  • The index comprises 9 themes.