North East Rural Livelihood Project
Paper: General Studies 3
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
Why in the news?
The North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP )has empowered rural poor and improved livelihoods of about 300,000 rural households in 1,645 villages under 58 development blocks across the eleven districts of four states of Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim, Under this project, the Skills development and placement has trained 10462 boys and girls in various job skills and a total of 5494 of them are employed today.
What is the North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP)?
- NERLP is World Bank aided, multi-state livelihood Rs.683 crore (USD 144.4 million) project under the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), launched in 2012. The project has been implemented in 11 districts of Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.
- The project aims “to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most disadvantaged, in four North Eastern States”.The project also works in partnerships with expert organizations to focus on cluster development through value chains.
- The project has focussed on five development strategies, namely, social empowerment, economic empowerment, partnership development, project management and livelihood & value chain developments.
- The project impacted the lives of about 18,00,000 (18 lakh) population, with creation of common economic assets worth around total Rs. 136 Crores. These include community projects executed by 1114 Community Development Groups (CDGs) with total outlay of Rs. 105 Crores and 176rural infrastructure projects under the Model Livelihood Cluster and Value Chain Development with a total investment of Rs.31 Crores.
- Community Development Group (CDG) formed per village comprising of three members of every family with the major role to develop Community Development Plan (CDP) with project funding of up to Rs.10 Lakhs. The activities under CDP include reclamation of wasteland, construction of check-dams, plantation, horticulture projects, provision of village electrification through hydrogen, provision of solar lighting, Spring water harvest to mitigating water needs for homestead farming, animal rearing, health and sanitation. The CDPs are impacting the villages in big ways since village communities – members of the CDGs- have selected what is most pertinent for their own progress and development.
- Rural infrastructure projects include 49 Commodities Collection Centres,51 Roadside Marketing Shed , 15 Prime Location Marketing Sheds, 63 Processing Units (including Bamboo Round Stick Units (4), Spices Processing Units (2), Rice Sheller Stations (5), Pig And Fish Feed Mills(3), Modern Pig Breeding Units (15), Fish Hatcheries(2), Scientific SlaughterHouse(1), Poultry Hatcheries (2), Agriculture Seed Processing Units(2), Ginger Processing Units (4), King Chili Processing Unit (1), Large Cardamoms Processing Plant (1), Vegetable Pack Houses(4), Green Tea Processing Plants (2), Fruit Processing Units(4), CLBRCs (2), Tailoring Units (3), Training Centres (2) and Yarn Banks(4) for weavers within the weaving clusters.
- Across the project districts, livelihood activities pursued by Self Help Group (SHG) members have increased considerably, thus increasing family incomes. Women have become more knowledgeable and expressive and they display better leadership qualities. The NERLP intervention has brought many positive changes. One SHG leader has become a Cabinet Minister in the state legislature in Tripura, and many SHG leaders are panchayat leaders today. Communities are emerging active and vibrant through enthusiastic participation in the process of development and assuming ownership.
IPCC Special Report on Oceans and Cryosphere
Paper: General Studies 3
Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
Why in the news?
- Destructive changes already set in motion could see a steady decline in fish stocks, a hundred-fold or more increase in the damages caused by superstorms, and hundreds of millions of people displaced by rising seas, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “special report” on oceans and Earth’s frozen zones, known as the cryosphere.
- Without deep cuts to man made emissions, at least 30% of the northern hemisphere’s surface permafrost could melt by century’s end, unleashing billions of tonnes of carbon and accelerating global warming even more.
- By 2050, many low-lying megacities and small island nations will experience “extreme sea level events” every year, the report concludes.
- Even if the world manages to cap global warming at two degrees Celsius, the global ocean waterline will rise enough to displace more than 250 million people.
- The report indicated this could happen as soon as 2100, though some experts think it is more likely to happen on a longer timescale.
What is the Cryosphere?
- The cryosphere is the frozen part of Earth’s surface. This includes glaciers, snow, sea ice, freshwater ice, permafrost, ice caps, and ice sheets. The cryosphere plays a significant role in the global climate by influencing hydrology, clouds, precipitation, and circulation of the atmosphere and the oceans.
- The existence of the cryosphere varies widely depending on its specific location around the world. For example, snow and freshwater ice may exist only through winter seasons in many places, whereas many glaciers have been frozen for over 10,000 years. Antarctica is home to the majority of global ice volume, however, the northern hemisphere is home to the largest cryosphere area. Climate researchers rely on measurements of the cryosphere for information about global climate change.
- The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the Fit India Movement at a ceremony in New Delhi on the occasion of National Sports Day. The Prime Minister urged the people of the country to make fitness their lifestyle. Today lifestyle diseases are on a rise in India affecting even the young. Cases of diabetes and hypertension is on the rise and even common among children in India. But small lifestyle changes can prevent these lifestyle diseases. ‘Fit India Movement’ is an effort to bring these small lifestyle changes
- Minister of State (I/C) for Civil Aviation launched an Aviation Jobs Portal for Aspirants and prospective Employers. The portal aims to provide a common platform for job seekers to register their job interests across various civil aviation sub-sectors. Prospective Employers, who have completed their KYC under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs MCA-21 database would be eligible to register themselves on the portal.
- Angikaar has been launched for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene for beneficiaries of completed houses under PMAY (U), through community mobilisation and IEC activities.For this purpose, the campaign will converge with schemes and Missions of other Ministries dealing with these subjects. The convergence would especially focus on Ujjwala for gas connection and Ayushman Bharat for health insurance to the beneficiaries of PMAY (U). The angikaar aims at reaching out all the beneficiaries of the Mission in phased manner. The campaign will be initiated in all target cities on 2nd October 2019 commemorating 150th Gandhi Jayanti after preparatory phase and culminate on the occasion of Human Rights Day, 10th December, 2019. The campaign will include door to door activities, ward and city level events.
- GI Tag has been awarded to the Dindigul Lock and the Kandangi Saree
- Two new species of eels have been discovered. One of them is a short brown unpatterned moray eel called Gymnothorax andamanensis discovered off the coast off South Andaman and the other is a white-spotted moray eel called Gymnothorax smithi in the Arabian Sea.