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India Child Well Being report

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

Why in the news?

  • The India Child Well-Being Report released on Tuesday analysed the well being of children based on 24 government data indicators. 
  • The report has been compiled by non-profit World Vision India and the Institute of Financial Management and Research.
  • The indicators are a mix of health, education, human rights, family income and so on. Health indicators such as stunting and infant mortality, under-five mortality rate, mental health/ illnesses, sex-ratio, adolescent pregnancy (women aged 15 to 19 years who were already mothers or pregnant), education indicators such as passing tenth grade, the pupil-teacher ratio, basic reading and math skills, drop-out rates in secondary school, crime indicators such as juvenile crimes, suicide rates, child labour, economic indicators such as houselessness, households with income less than Rs 5,000 and labour indicators such as manual scavenging. 
  • The report, calls for States to look at their respective scores on the dimensions of child well-being, and to prepare for priority areas of intervention with specific plans of action. It also hopes to trigger policy level changes, seek better budgetary allocations and initiate discussions with all stakeholders, which can help in enhancing the quality of life of all children in the country.

What are the findings of the report?

  • Among the states, Kerala topped the list with a score of 0.76. Recording a score of 0.44, Madhya Pradesh was in the last quartile, with the least score on child well-being. Among the Union Territories, the well-being score for the National Capital Territories of Delhi was 0.53, closely followed by Dadra Nagar Haveli at 0.52.
  • On many measures of child well-being, Kerala surpassed most Indian states by ensuring access to good health and nutrition to children and safe drinking water and sanitation, providing quality education and addressing poverty. Among the Union Territories, Puducherry topped with good scores in the areas of providing health, nutrition and clean water and addressing poverty.
  • A low performance in the areas of child survival, nutrition, crimes against children and juvenile crimes, brought the scores down for Madhya Pradesh. More children live in poorer families in Madhya Pradesh,” the report stated.
  • The report further said, for Jharkhand, child survival, nutrition and access to water and sanitation are the key areas that need to be focussed on, to improve its score. More children were stunted and underweight, access to institutional delivery was low and a higher number of children were dying before they turned five.
  • Efforts were needed to ensure children complete schooling, since more children were dropping out of school in the state. Survival, nutrition and basic education are other aspects in which Jharkhand performed the lowest among all Indian states.
  • Multiple North-Eastern states featured in the top rungs of this dimension of providing positive relationships for the child, with more children enjoying care in the environment they are growing up in. The North-Eastern states had a better sex ratio, with lesser involvement of children in crimes and most births being registered.
  • Nagaland topped the first quartile of states. The involvement of children in crimes was low in Nagaland, more births were registered, and suicides among children were low. However, another North-Eastern state Sikkim was at the bottom of the last quartile, owing to its higher number of crimes by juveniles and suicides among children

Janaushadhi Sugam

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in the news?

  • Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers, Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda launched a mobile application “Janaushadhi Sugam” 
  • “Janaushadhi Sugam” mobile application would have user-friendly options like- to locate nearby Janaushadhi kendra, direction guidance for the location of the Janaushadhi kendra through Google Map, search Janaushadhi generic medicines, analyse product comparison of Generic vs Branded medicine in form of MRP & overall Savings, etc. The mobile application is available on both Android & iOS platforms. It can be downloaded free of cost by the user from Google Play Store and Apple Store.

What are Generic medicines?

  • A generic drug is a medication created to be the same as an already marketed brand-name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics, and intended use. 
  • These similarities help to demonstrate bioequivalence, which means that a generic medicine works in the same way and provides the same clinical benefit as its brand-name version. In other words, you can take a generic medicine as an equal substitute for its brand-name counterpart.
  • These medicines cost less than their brand name counterparts.

 

Land Degradation

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Why in the news?

  • The Environment Minister has said that India is committed to rejuvenate 50 lakh hectares of degraded land between 2021-2030.
  • India also joined the Bonn Challenge in January 2019. It is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030.

What is Land Degradation?

Land degradation is defined as the temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land, and the diminution of the productive potential, including its major land uses (e.g., rain-fed arable, irrigation, forests), its farming systems (e.g., smallholder subsistence), and its value as an economic resource. 

 

Bharat Emission Norms

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Why in the news?

The Oil marketing companies will increase the prices of petrol and diesel with effect from April 2020 to recover over Rs. 30,000 crore of investments made by these firms in upgrading their refineries to meet BS VI standards.

What are Bharat Stage Emission Standards?

  • The Bharat Stage emission standards are standards instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles, generator sets and construction machinery.
  • India has been following European (Euro) emission norms, although with a time lag of five years. The BS IV norms had been enforced across the country since April 2017. In 2016, the Centre had announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. Implementation of the intermediate BS-V standard was originally scheduled for 2019.
  • These standards have been constituted to reduce and regulate the air pollution and push towards cleaner technologies for transport.

 

Prelims Specific

  • “Jan Aushadhi Suvidha Oxo-Biodegradable Sanitary Napkin” will now be available at only One Rupee per pad. These sanitary pads were launched by the Government in 2018.
  • Peacock Parachute Spider (Gooty Tarantula) is a critically endangered species of spider found in the degraded forests of Nandyal in Andhra Pradesh.