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Saint Thiruvalluvar

Paper: General Studies 1

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

About Saint Thiruvalluvar

  • Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was a celebrated Tamil poet and philosopher believed to have lived between 3rd Century BC and 1st Century BC. 
  • He is best known for authoring the Thirukkuṛaḷ, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economical matters, and love. Tirukkural is a classic Tamil sangam literature consisting of 1330 couplets or Kurals.
  • The book is also called as the fifth Veda or ‘Bible of the Tamil Land’.

Jal Jeevan Mission

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Why in the news?

The Prime Minister announced that the Government would work on taking forward the Jal-Jeevan Mission.

What is the Jal Jeevan Mission?

  • It is a mission to ensure Har Ghar Jal (piped water supply) to all rural households by 2024
  • This Mission will focus on integrated demand and supply side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse in agriculture.
  • The  Mission will converge with other Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives of sustainable water supply management across the country.
  • Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Jal Shakti Mantralaya will be the implementing agency.
  • Besides using funds available under various Schemes, the Government will also explore possibility of using additional funds available under the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) for this purpose.


UN Security Council

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Why in the news?

The UN Security Council will meet behind closed doors to discuss India’s dilution of the special status of Kashmir

What is the UN Security Council?

  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. 
  • Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General.
  • The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.


Chief of Defence Staff

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

Why in the news?

The Prime Minister announced the creation of the position of the Chief of Defence Staff during the Independence Day speech at the Red Fort.

What is the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)?

  • The CDS is meant to be a single-point military advisor to the government, and to coordinate long-term planning, procurement, training and logistics of the three services. 
  • As future wars become short, swift and network-centric, coordination among the three services is crucial. Also as the stress on resources increases and defence budgets remain flat, the way forward is optimisation of resources by joint planning and training.
  • The CDS, being above the three Service Chiefs, is expected to play this role by optimising procurement, avoiding duplication among the services and streamlining the process. India being a nuclear weapons state, the CDS will also act as the military advisor to the Prime Minister on nuclear issues.
  • The proposal for a CDS has been there for two decades. It was first made by the K. Subrahmanyam committee appointed after the Kargil conflict of 1999 to recommend higher military reforms.
  • In the absence of a CDS, presently the senior most of the three Chiefs functions as the Chairman COSC. But it is an additional role and the tenures have been very short.


Prelims Specific

  • BPaL is a three drug regimen consisting of bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid being used to cure highly drug resistant strains of tuberculosis and shorten the treatment period.