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Sant Ravidas

Paper: General Studies 1

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Why in the news?

There were state-wide protests in Punjab by the Ravidas Community over the alleged demolition of a temple in New Delhi on the purported direction of the apex court.

About Sant Ravidas

  • Ravidas was a mystic poet-saint of the Bhakti movement during the 15th to 16th century CE. Venerated as a guru (teacher) in the region of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the devotional songs of Ravidas have had a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement. He was a poet-saint, social reformer and a spiritual figure.
  • Ravidas’ devotional songs were included in the Sikh scriptures, Guru Granth Sahib.The Panch Vani text of the Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism also includes numerous poems of Ravidas. Ravidas taught removal of social divisions of caste and gender, and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms.


Supreme Court of India

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary 

Why in the news?

  • The Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu has advocated the need to set up Supreme Court benches in different regions in the country, including one at Chennai, to bring the judicial system closer to people. 
  • Concurring with the recommendation of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Law and Justice to have separate benches in different regions, the Vice President said “I think it is high time we had more benches because in a country as vast as India the litigants have to travel long distances and spend a huge amount of money and energy”’.

Where is the seat of the Supreme Court?

  • The Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or in such other place or places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to time, appoint.
  • Thus, the Chief Justice of India can with due approval of the President set up multiple benches across the country.


‘Uber for Tractors’

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: e-technology in the aid of farmers

Why in the news?

  • In order to ensure that farmers have access to cutting edge technology at their doorstep, the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare is going to launch a mobile app that connects farmers with Custom Hiring Centres (CHCs) just like Uber connects passengers to cabs.

What is a Custom Hiring centre?

  • Custom Hiring Centres have farm machinery that farmers can rent out as and when they need to carry out farming activities. Since, each equipment costs a lot, these centres have been established to provide access to these implements at lower costs.
  • A committee of farmers’ nominated by the gram sabha manages the custom hiring centre. The rates for hiring the machines/ implements are decided by the Village Climate Risk Management Committee (VCRMC). This committee also uses the revenue generated from hiring charges for repair and maintenance of the implements and remaining amount goes into the revolving fund. 
  • There are around 27 different types of farm machinery stocked in the CHCs, the most popular are rotavator, zero till drill, drum seeder, multi-crop planter, power weeder and chaff cutter. 

What are the advantages of custom hiring centres?

  • Provides access to small and marginal farmers to costly farm machinery
  • Facilitates timeliness in farm operations and efficient use of inputs
  • Promotes adoption of climate resilient practices and technologies by farmers because of availability of appropriate machines at reasonable hiring charges
  • Reduces drudgery 
  • Promotes increase in cropping intensity wherever feasible
  • Facilitates crop residue recycling and prevents burning of residues
  • Reduction in cost of cultivation
  • Provides work opportunities to skilled labour and small artisans


National Liberation Front of Twipra – SD

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Linkages between development and spread of extremism

Why in the news?

  • A Memorandum of Settlement was signed on 10th of August, 2019  by the Government of India, Govt. of Tripura and National Liberation Front of Twipra led by Sabir Kumar Debbarma (NLFT-SD).
  • NLFT has been banned under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act since 1997 and has been involved in violence, operating from their camps across the international border. 
  • NLFT has been responsible for violent activities including 317 insurgency incidents in which 28 security forces and 62 civilians lost their lives during the period 2005-2015. Peace talks with NLFT were initiated in 2015 and there has been no violence by NLFT since 2016.
  • NLFT (SD) has agreed to abjure the path of violence, join the mainstream and abide by the Constitution of India. It has agreed to the surrender of its 88 cadres with their weapons. 
  • The surrendered cadres will be given surrender benefits as per the Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation Scheme, 2018 of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The State Government of Tripura will help the surrendered cadres in housing, recruitment, education etc. Government of India will consider the proposals of Tripura State Government regarding economic development of tribal areas of Tripura.

What is the NLFT?

  • The National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) is a Tripuri nationalist organisation based in Tripura. It has an estimated 550 to 850 members. A common ideology within the NLFT is Tripuri Nationalism. This has two components: a Tripura state that is for only the native citizens, and the Bengalis that inhabit Tripura have no political rights or power.
  • The NLFT seeks to secede from India and establish an independent Tripuri state, and is an active participant in the Insurgency in Northeast India. 
  • The group has been banned from the Indian government under the Unlawful Activities Act. Therefore, the group operates from its headquarters in Khagrachari, a district in Bangladesh around 45 km from Simanapur.