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Crime in India Report 2017

Paper: General Studies 2

TopicWelfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Why in the news?

  • After a delay of two years the annual Crime in India Report 2017 was published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) on Monday.
  • The NCRB for the first time collected data on circulation of “false/fake news and rumours.” Under the category, maximum incidents were reported from Madhya Pradesh (138), Uttar Pradesh (32) and Kerala (18).
  • The incidents registered under the Scheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw an increase from 5,082 incidents reported in 2016 to 5,775 in 2017. Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dipped from 844 in 2016 to 720 in 2017.

What is the data on crimes against women?

  • As per the report, 3,59,849 cases of crime against women were reported in the country. Uttar Pradesh topped the list with 56,011 cases followed by Maharashtra with 31,979 cases and West Bengal 30,002.
  • Majority of cases under crimes against women were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or his Relatives’ (27.9%) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (21.7%), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (20.5%) and ‘Rape’ (7.0%).

 

Ecological Flow in Ganga

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Why in the news?

  • Hydropower projects on the Ganges that do not comply with the Centre’s ecological flow notification, which mandates that project developers ensure a minimum supply of water all through the year, could face closure.
  • The Centre’s ecological flow notification came into effect last October and gave companies three years to modify their design plans, if required, to ensure that a minimum amount of water flowed during all seasons. Power producers generally hoard water to create reserves to increase power production.
  • The e-flow notification specifies that the upper stretches of the Ganga — from its origins in the glaciers and until Haridwar — would have to maintain: 20% of the monthly average flow of the preceding 10-days between November and March, which is the dry season; 25% of the average during the ‘lean season’ of October, April and May; and 30% of monthly average during the monsoon months of June-September.

 

Biofuels

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Why in the news?

Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas Shri Dharmendra Pradhan participated in the 2nd Annual India Leadership Summit of the US-India Strategic Partnership Forum here. He invited US businesses to deploy technology, capital and new business models and participate in India

What are biofuels?

  • Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels primarily produced from biomass, and can be used to replace or can be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other fossil fuels for transport, stationary, portable and other applications. 
  • Crops used to make biofuels are generally either high in sugar (such as sugarcane, sugarbeet, and sweet sorghum), starch (such as maize and tapioca) or oils (such as soybean, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower).

 

What are the types of biofuels?

Biofuels are generally classified into three categories. They are

  1. First generation biofuels – First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. Common first-generation biofuels include Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, Biogas.
  2. Second generation biofuels – These are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Examples include advanced biofuels like biohydrogen, biomethanol.
  3. Third generation biofuels – These are produced from microorganisms like algae

 

What are the benefits of biofuels?

The benefits of using biodiesel are as follows

  • It reduces vehicle emission which makes it eco-friendly.
  • It is made from renewable sources and can be prepared locally.
  • Increases engine performance because it has higher cetane numbers as compared to petro diesel.
  • It has excellent lubricity.
  • Increased safety in storage and transport because the fuel is nontoxic and biodegradable (Storage, high flash point)
  • Production of bio diesel in India will reduce dependence on foreign suppliers, thus helpful in price stability.
  • Reduction of greenhouse gases by at least 3.3 kg CO2 equivalent per kg of biodiesel.

Defence Acquisition Council

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

Why in the news?

  • The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) accorded approval for Capital Procurement for the Defence forces amounting over Rs. 3300 crores of indigenously designed and developed equipment.
  • Maintaining its impetus on the ‘Make in India’ initiative, the DAC accorded approval for three projects to be indigenously designed, developed and manufactured by the Indian industry. The first two projects include third generation Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) and the Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) for the T-72 and T-90 Tanks. While the third generation ATGM would provide ‘Fire and Forget’ and “Top Attack” capabilities to the troops in an armoured battle, the APUs would enable incorporation of various upgrades to Fire Control System and Night Fighting capabilities of the Tanks. Both these projects will be progressed under the ‘Make-II’ Category and will provide a boost to indigenous research and development in the Private Sector. With this, for the first time the Ministry of Defence has offered complex Military equipment to be designed, developed and manufactured by the Indian private industry.
  • The third indigenous project pertains to discrete Electronic Warfare (EW) systems for the mountain and High Altitude terrain, which would be designed and developed by DRDO and manufactured by design cum production partner from the Indian industry.

What is the Defence Acquisition Council?

  • The DAC is the Ministry of Defence’s highest decision making body for capital acquisition proposals forwarded by the Indian armed forces set up in 2001 as part of the post-Kargil reforms in defence sector
  • It approves the long-term integrated perspective plan for the forces, accords acceptance of necessity (AON) to begin acquisition proposals, and grant’s its approval to all major deals through all their important phases.
  • It also has the power to approve any deviations in an acquisition, and recommends all big capital defence purchases for approval of the Cabinet committee on security (CCS) headed by Prime Minister.

 

Prelims Specific

  • Digital Bharat Digital Sanskriti is the e-portal of CCRT. This will enable dissemination of cultural education through digital interactive medium into classrooms all over the country
  • Siachen, located in the eastern Karakoram range has been opened for tourism. This was made possible after construction of a bridge named Col. Chewang Rinchen Setu by the Border Roads Organization which will provide all weather connectivity to the region.