For online IAS classes

For online IAS classes, Click Here, Click here.

3 PoK Terror Camps Destroyed (GS 2, 3)

  • What is Pakistan Occupied Kashmir?
  • It is that part of Jammu and Kashmir which was under the control of the Pakistani forces when the ceasefire line came into effect on January 1, 1949, after India and Pakistan had their first war fought in 1947-48.
  • Pakistan had violated its Standstill Agreement with Kashmir by sponsoring a tribal militant attack in Kashmir on October 1947.
  • Pakistan has divided POK into 2 parts i.e. Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.
  • The chief of Pakistan-occupied Kashmir is the President while the Prime Minister is the Chief Executive Officer supported by a Council of Ministers.
  • Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) is a part of the original Kashmir, whose borders touches to  Pakistan area of Punjab, Northwest, Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan, Xinjiang region of China and east of Indian Kashmir


Govt should reverse cuts on Corporate Taxes : Abhijeet Banerjee (GS 3)


  • The effective tax rate for domestic corporates, inclusive of surcharges, will fall from 34.94% to 25.17% if they stop availing any other tax sops.
  • For new manufacturing firms set up after October 1, 2019 and commencing operations by March 31, 2023, the effective tax rate will fall from 29.1% to 17%.


  • Lower taxes should, ideally, result is higher profit margins. These companies will lower the product prices to the customers.
  • the resultant change in profitability will likely prompt companies to invest more, raising their capital expenditure

Additional capacities will, eventually, through a secondary round effect, prompt these companies to hire more employees


IoE Tag will lead to privatization in DU (GS 2)

  • The UGC had nominated 20 institutions(10 public and 10 private) for Institutes of Eminence Tag
  • Nominations have been made on the recommendations of Empowered Expert Committee (EEC) headed by N Gopalaswami.
  • The selected institutes will enjoy complete academic and administrative autonomy.
  • Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for the eminence tag.
  • All selected govt institutions will get Rs 1000 crores each but no government financial help will be given to private institutions.


                      A Symbol of Equality (GS 1)

  • Guru Nanak Dev, first of the 10 gurus, founded the Sikh faith, introducing the concept of one God. The concept of god is Wahiguru’, an entity that is shapeless, timeless, omnipresent and invisible.
  • He started the institution of Guru Ka Langar. Langar is the term in the Sikh religion refers to the common kitchen where food is served to everyone without any discrimination. Sikhism also lays a lot of importance to charity and selfless service.
  • He emphasized the equality of women and rejected the path of renunciation and he rejected the authority of the Vedas
  • He also denied the need for priests and rituals.


After Mamallapuram, the reality of asymmetry (GS 2)

The Chennai Connect/Mamallapuram Informal Summit

  • Why Mamallapuram?
  1. India has chosen Mamallapuram as a symbol of India’s ‘soft power’
  2. Mamallapuram is an important town of the erstwhile Pallava dynastythat ruled in parts of South India from 275 CE to 897 CE.
  3. Mamallapuram and the Pallava dynasty are also historically relevant, for the earliest recorded security pact between China and India (in the early 8thcentury) that involved a Pallava king (Rajasimhan, or Narasimha Varma II), from whom the Chinese sought help to counter Tibet.
  • Key Points
  1. emphasized upon managing the differences and not to allow differences on any issue to become disputes.
  2. A High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue mechanismto be established to enhance trade and commercial relations
  3. India-China agreed to support and strengthen the rules-based multilateral trading system.


  1. The strategic communicationto be enhanced to maximize usage of high-level exchanges like dialogue mechanisms.
  2. Boundary issues to be solved on the lines of a mutually-agreed framework based on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles that were agreed by the two sides in 2005.
  3. Countering Terrorism and Fundamentalism
  4. The year 2020 will mark the 70thanniversary of the establishment of India-China diplomatic relations, to celebrate the event two countries will be organizing 70 activities to emphasize the historical connection between the two civilizations.
  5. India to relax e-visa provisions for Chinese Citizens
  6. Discussions on Indian concerns over RCEP


            A time tested way to trade away Conflict (GS 2,3)

  • Trade Strengthens Peace and there needs to be a revised strategy towards restarting cross LoC Trade.
  • It was in 1972 that LoC between India and Pakistan was thought of as a part of Shimla Agreement
  • On April 7, 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh flagged the first cross-LoC bus, called ‘Karwaan-e-Aman’, from the Sher-i-Kashmir stadium in Srinagar towards Muzaffarabad. This was in true sense a Confidence Building Measure(CBM) between the 2 sides.
  • In 2008, a significant year, the two governments decided to further exploit the potential of existing transport routes by establishing trade.
  • In May that year, the Foreign Ministers of India and Pakistan decided to finalize the modalities of intra-Kashmir trade and truck service.
  • The LoC gave rise to hope in the virtuous cycle between trade, trust and people-to-people connect, establish peace and build bridges in an otherwise disturbed region

Till April 2019, when cross-LoC trade was suspended by India, both bus links and trade had survived for more than a decade despite intermittent suspensions and ceasefire violations

  • Between 2008-2018, trade worth ₹7,500 crore was transacted across the LoC, generating more than 1.7 lakh job days and an approximate freight revenue of ₹66.4 crore for transporters in J&K, on account of 75,114 truck crossings and ₹90.2 crore paid to laborers.
  1. Given the present situation in J&K, it is imperative that India plans an outreach connecting all stakeholders from across the spectrum including the ecosystem of cross-LoC trade
  2. Need to address lack of transparency via
  • Standard Operating Procedure
  • Invoicing
  • Clarifications of GST Norms and inter-State taxation rules to avoid tax evasions
  • Trader registration policy to ensure credible traders are involved in trade
  • clarifications on harmonized system codes to avoid misrepresentation of commodities
  • clarifications on rules of origin to avoid third country goods
  • Digitisation of systems and procedures at the trade facilitation centres