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Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

Why in the news?

  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh have emerged as the top performing States with free secondary and tertiary treatment worth nearly ₹7,901 crore availed under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), the flagship health assurance scheme of the Government in just over a year.
  • More than 60% of the amount spent has been on tertiary care. Cardiology, Orthopaedics, Radiation Oncology, Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, and Urology have emerged as the top tertiary specialities,

What is PM – JAY?

  • Ayushman Bharat- Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PMJAY) provides a cover of up to Rs. 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.
  • Over 10.74 crore vulnerable entitled families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) are eligible for these benefits.
  • PMJAY provides cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiary at the point of service.
  • The insurance cost is shared by the centre and the state mostly in the ratio of 60:40.
  • Empanelled hospitals agree to the packaged rates under PM-JAY—there are about 1,400 packaged rates for various medical procedures under the scheme. These rates are flexible, but once fixed hospitals can’t change it and under no circumstances can they charge the beneficiary. The scheme also has prescribed a daily limit for medical management.


Indus Water Treaty (IWT)

Paper: General Studies 2

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations

Why in the news?

  • The Prime Minister has said that India would put to use its share of water from the rivers flowing into Pakistan and ensure that every single drop was used for the country’s farmers.
  • River water sharing in the Indus Basin between India and Pakistan is controlled by the Indus Water Treaty.

What is the Indus Water Treaty?

  • Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960, between India and Pakistan and brokered by the World Bank. The treaty fixed and delimited the rights and obligations of both countries concerning the use of the waters of the Indus River system.
  • The treaty gave the waters of the western rivers—the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab—to Pakistan and those of the eastern rivers—Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej—to India. 
  • The treaty required the creation of a Permanent Indus Commission, with a commissioner from each country, in order to maintain a channel for communication and to try to resolve questions about implementation of the treaty. In addition, a mechanism for resolving disputes was provided.
  • According to the treaty, all the water of eastern rivers shall be available for unrestricted use in India. India should let unrestricted flow of water from western rivers to Pakistan. It doesn’t mean that India can’t use western river’s water. The treaty says that India can use the water in western rivers in “non-consumptive” needs. Here non consumptive means we can use it for irrigation, storage and even for electricity production. Out of the total flow in the Indus Basin, India has been assigned 20% for its own use.
  • Even though Indus and the Satluj originate in China, it is not a part of the Treaty.


What are the disputes that have come up under the IWT?

  • Over the years several dams being built by India have been objected to by Pakistan for example, Tulbul Project on the Jhelum, Kishanganga Project on Kishanganga and Ratle Dam on the Chenab.
  • Some of the projects had been stopped by India due to Pakistan opposition like Tulbul while others like Kishanganga were completed and are now functional. 
  • The Government plans to restart the stalled projects.


Make in India

Paper: General Studies 3

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Why in the news?

  • Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs has launched a revamped and streamlined programme to attract investments into India and strengthen Make in India through manufacturing and other operations under bond scheme, under the Customs Act, 1962. Section 65 of the Customs Act, 1962 enables conduct of manufacture and other operations in a customs bonded warehouse. 
  • The scheme is expected to play a critical role in promoting investments in India and in enhancing ease of doing business. It can enable the ‘Make in India’ programme, encourage exports, create hubs for electronics assembly, repair & refurbishment operations, inward and outward processing, facilitate global e-commerce hubs etc.

What are the features of the scheme?

The scheme has been modernized with clear and transparent procedures, simplified compliance requirements ICT-based documentation and account keeping. The main features of the scheme are as below –

  1. A single application cum approval form prescribed for uniformity of practice. The jurisdictional Commissioner of Customs will function as a single point of approval to set up and oversee the operations of such units.
  2. No geographical limitation on where such units can be set up.
  3. The unit can import goods (both inputs and capital goods) under a customs duty deferment program. The duties are fully remitted if the processed goods are exported.
  4. There will be no interest liability and units will benefit through improved liquidity.
  5. GST compliant goods can be procured from the domestic market for use in manufacturing and other operations in a section 65 unit.
  6. A single digital account has been prescribed for ease of doing business and easy compliance.
  7.  The scheme would also enable efficient capacity utilization, as there is no limit on quantum of clearances that can be exported or cleared to the domestic market.


What is Make In India Programme?

Make in India is a major new national programme of the Government of India designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development, protect intellectual property and build best in class manufacturing infrastructure in the country. The primary objective of this initiative is to attract investments from across the globe and strengthen India’s manufacturing sector. It covers 25 sectors of the economy.


Prelims Specific

  • Bluetongue sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and the Japanese Encephalitis lgM ELISA kit for the control of Swine and Detection of Antigen, are two diagnostic kits released by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) under the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
  • 14 Authorized World Skills India Training Centers (AWSITC) across 9 cities will be set up in Media & Entertainment Sector. The cities includeChandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Mumbai, Pune, Shillong and Trivandrum. AWSITC aims to provide best in class training to candidates to showcase their skills at national and international competitions, by making them industry ready.