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Ideas to cover


  • Blood groups continued
  •  Blood related diseases
             – Sickle cell anemia
             – Hemophilia

Transfusion reactions


  • Mismatched blood types:

– A transfusion reaction is likely to occur

– The RBCs of donor blood can get agglutinated or clumped

– These clumps can plug small vessels throughout the circulatory system

  •   Rarely-> donor blood causes agglutination of recipient RBCs as the donor plasma is easily diluted in large amount of     recipient plasma


Rhesus Group(Rh group)


  • 2nd most used system after ABO grouping
  • “Rh” was originally an abbreviation of “Rhesus factor” discovered in 1937 by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener
  • There are many antigens but D antigen is most important
  • On the basis of presence of Rh antigens

– Two groups -> Rh+(having antigen) or Rh-(lacking antigen)


Rhesus Group(Rh group)


  • Rh transfusion:

– Rh- to Rh+ = safe

– Rh+ to Rh- = unsafe

  • Formation of Anti D antibodies or anti Rh factor:

– When Rh+ is transfused to Rh- -> slow formation of antibodies occur with maximum concentration of Anti-Rh-factor at about 2 months

– Multiple exposures -> strong sensitization – Easy and dangerous future reactions


Rhesus Group(Rh group)


  • Offspring Rh factor can be seen through parents type:

– Rh+ genotype = RR, Rr

– Rh- genotype = rr

  • Erythroblastosis feotalis:

– When Rh- mother gives birth to sucessive Rh+ children

– Prevention -> Rh Immunoglobulin


Sickle Cell Anemia


  • Genetic disorder
  • Autosomal disorder
  • Comes via 11th chromosome
  • Anemia = condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body’s tissues
  • In sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky and misshapen.


Sickle Cell Anemia


  • The amino acid on 6th position (glutamic acid) is replaced by “valine” -> this leads to sickling of RBC and Hb.

– Life span of sickle RBC cell = 10 days

– Hemoglobin of SC -> 6-8 (as compared to 14-15 normal)

  • Important for India because -> common in Indian tribal belts


Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle Cell Genotype


Sickle Cell Anemia and Malaria


  • Direct but inverse relation
  • Malaria is:

– Vector borne disease (female anopheles)

– Caused by pathogen (Plasmodium)

  • Plasmodium in its life cycle in human body multiplies in RBC
  • But SCT RBCs die before this process so prevents malaria




  • Excessive bleeding due to deficiency of Blood clotting agents such as prothrombin, fibrinogen (clotting factors)
  • Deficiency of factors 8 and 9

– Factor 8 -> Haemophilia A

– Factor 9 -> Haemophilia B

  • Sex linked disorder – in particular “X-linked” disorder


Haemophilia – Genotype


  • Haemophilia is more prominent in males


Plant Nutrition


  • Almost all plants are autotrophs i.e. make their own food by photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis is the process of conversion of CO2 and water to carbohydrates and O2


Plant Nutrition


  • The sugars/carbs produced by photosynthesis are used for plant energy needs and excess carbohydrate is stored as starch
  • CO2 needed -> taken mostly from stomata

– However gaseous exchange takes place though roots, stem, and other portions of leaves too

  • Stomata = openings controlled by guard cells present on leaves that controls exchange of material between plant and atmosphere
  • H2O needed -> mostly taken from soil by roots


Plant Nutrition


Plant Nutrition


Plant Nutrition


  • The process of photosynthesis has following events:

– Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll

– Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen

– Reduction of CO2 to carbohydrates

  • The process consists of 2 major reactions:

– Light reactions (need sunlight) -> produce O2 and ATP

– Dark (light independent reactions) -> do not directly need light but light does play indirect role in them [calvin cycle]


Plant Nutrition


Plant Nutrition


  • However the process of stomatal opening also leads to water transpiration and is detrimental to water balance in the plant
  • So in those situations stomata closes and it reduces availability of CO2 for photosynthesis
  • This speeds the process of photorespiration that is sort of a waste process that takes oxygen from H2O and produces CO2